Agricultural Studies, Vol. 6, Issue 2, Aug  2022, Pages 1-14; DOI:

Comparative Evaluation of the Proximate, Vitamins, Minerals, Phytochemicals, and Anti-Nutrients Compositions of Purchased and Laboratory-Prepared Indigenous Snacks Commonly Consumed in Bida Nigeria

Agricultural Studies, Vol. 6, Issue 2, Aug  2022, Pages 1-14.


Henry Unaeze Helen Nonye 1* , Ubaji Nkechi Maryann 2

1 Department of Food, Nutrition, and Home Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Applied Food Sciences and Tourism Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

Received: 5 April 2022; Accepted: 22 April 2022; Published: 10 May 2022

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Background: The knowledge of the chemical composition of indigenous snacks will help consumers make informed choices for healthy living. Objectives: This experimental study evaluated the comparative composition of purchased and laboratory-prepared indigenous snacks commonly eaten in Bida, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Four commonly eaten snacks (Kilishi, Kuli Kuli, Kunu aya, and Donkwa) identified by some selected indigenes of Bida based on availability were purchased and reproduced in the laboratory. The samples were evaluated for proximate, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and anti-nutrient composition using standard procedures. Data generated were analyzed using the IBM Statistical Product for Service Solution (version 21.0) and presented as means and standard deviations. The means were compared with Analysis of variance, separated by the Duncan Multiple Test Range, and significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Results: The proximate range of the purchased and prepared snacks were 1.20 to 72.55% protein, 0.40 to 14.70% fat, 0.03 to 2.40% fibre, 0.40 to 3.60% ash, 4.58 to 90.68% moisture, and 2.68 to 60.85% carbohydrates. The vitamins content ranged from 0.95 to 7.43µg vitamin A, 1.06 to 2.10mg thiamin, 0.87 to 1.59mg vitamin B2; 1.05 to 1.40 vitamin B3. The minerals ranged from 11.69 to 286.32 calcium, 8.10 to 290.62 magnesium, 0.27 to 2.40mg zinc, 0.25 to 8.40mg iron, 7.18 to 228.38mg potassium, 12.55 to 529.27mg. The anti-nutrients, and phytochemicals ranged from 0.03 to 0.12mg tannin, 0.02 to 0.59mg alkaloids, 0.09 to 0.48mg phytate, 0.03 to 7.43mg saponin. There were statistically significant differences between the chemical compositions of the purchased and the laboratory-prepared indigenous snacks at p<0.05. Kilishi is a good protein source, Kunu aya can quench thirst and Donkwa can sustain hunger. The indigenous snacks are nutrient-dense and can contribute to dietary intake. Conclusion: Indigenous snacks have varied nutrient contents to support health.


Indigenous, Snacks, Chemical Composition, Nutrient Intake, Consumer


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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