Agricultural Studies, Vol. 5, Issue 3, Dec  2021, Pages 1-8; DOI:

Proximate Composition, Anti-Nutrients and Crude Fibre Fractions of Selected Peels Fed to Ruminants

Agricultural Studies, Vol. 5, Issue 3, Dec  2021, Pages 1-8.


Okpanachi Uchele 1* , Luka James Sabo 1 , Danjuma Ramatu Aliyu 1 , Ochai Anthonia Ojela 1 , Adeniyi Adebayo Kunle 1 , Mohammed Musa Yahaya 1

1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Received: 4 August 2021; Accepted: 12 October 2021; Published: 15 November 2021

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 62 | Download 37


This study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition of six common peels fed to ruminants namely: Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). These were purchased from fruit and vegetable retailers in Jos, Plateau State. The results for proximate composition are as follows: dry matter ranged from 95.75% (pawpaw peels) to 96.25% (watermelon rind), carbohydrate from 41.95% (pawpaw peels) to 45.70% (cucumber peels), fibre from 6.07% (cucumber peels) to 7.65% (pineapple peels), protein from 25.46% (sweet orange peels) to 26.66% (watermelon rind), lipid from 3.01% (lettuce) to 4.00% (watermelon rind) and ash from 13.97% (cucumber peels) to 16.71% (Irish potato peels). For antinutrients, saponin ranged from 0.867% (cucumber peels) to 2.53% (watermelon rind), tannin from 5.09% (cucumber peels) to 6.37% (lettuce), phytate from 0.003mg/100g (sweet orange peels and pawpaw peels) to 0.007mg/100g (watermelon rind), oxalate from 1.08% (cucumber peels) to 2.43% (watermelon rind) and flavonoid from 3.66% (Irish potato peels) to 4.37% (cucumber peels). Also, crude fibre fractions which include cellulose ranged from 10.81% (watermelon rind) to 12.02% (pineapple peels), hemicellulose from 7.73% (watermelon rind) to 9.24% (cucumber peels), NDF from 10.72% (lettuce) to 12.13% (sweet orange peels), ADF from 7.63% (Irish potato peels) to 9.13% (sweet orange peels) and ADL from 1.71% (cucumber peels) to 2.13% (watermelon rind).All parameters under proximate composition were significantly affected except protein, all parameters under antinutrients were significantly affected except phytate and flavonoid, and all parameters under crude fibre fractions were significantly affected (P<0.05). The selected samples are recommended for ruminant feeding at permissible levels or quantities.


Ruminants, Proximate Composition, Antinutrients, Crude Fibre Fractions, Peels


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Tobias, M.C.Hector, B.Mazza, R.P.H.Oliveira, B.L.M.Marques, M.P.Alves da Silva.; E.J.Ørskov, E.R. Characterization of Vegetables and Fruits potential as ruminant feed by in vitro gas production technique. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 201022 (9).

[2] Bello, M.O.; Falade, O.J.; Adewusi, S.R.A.Olawore, N.O. Studies on the Chemical Composition and anti-nutrients of some lesser known Nigeria fruits. African Journal of Biotechnology, 20087(21), 3972-3979.

[3] AOACOfficial Method of Analysis, 13th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D.C, 1980; pp. 376-384.

[4] Pearson, D. Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th Edition, Church Hill Livingstone, London, UK, 1976; pp. 72-73, 138-143, 488-496.

[5] AOACOfficial Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 14th Edition, AOAC, Arlington1984.

[6] Allen, S.E. Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Wiley, NewYork. 1974.

[7] Reddy, N.R.; Balakrishan, C.V.Sallinkhe, D.K. Phytate Phosphorus and Mineral Changes During Germination and Cooking of Black Gram (Phaseolus mungo) Seeds. Journal of Food Science, 197843(2).

[8] Oke, O.L. Oxalic Acid in Plant and in Nutrition. World. Rev. Nutri. Diet., 196910263-303.

[9] Boham, B.; Kocipai-Abyazan, R. Flavonoids and Condensed Tannins from Leaves of Hawaiian Vaccinium vaticulation and Vaccinium calyciniumPacific Science, 197448,458-463.

[10] Kpanja, E.J.; Duru, S.; Omage, J.J.; Sekoni, A.A.Gonjoh, P.T. (). Proximate composition, anti–nutritional factors and the effect of irish potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) peels on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 201521(2).

[11] Mabrouk, M.E.M.El Ahwany, A.D.M. Production of ß-Mannanase by Bacillus amylolequifaciens 10A1 Cultured on Potato Peels. African Journal of Biotechnology, 20087(8), 1123-1128.

[12] Olayinka, B.V.Etejere, E.OProximate and Chemical Compositions of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai  Red and Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Pipino). International Food Research Journal, 201825 (3), 1060-1066.

[13] Gav, B.L.Anyanwu, S.N.Oloruntoba, S.O.Tor, P. Proximate and Mineral Analysis of Watermelon Sold at North Bank Market, Makurdi, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: Biochemistry, 201919(1), 10.

[14] Feumba, D.R.Ashwini, R.P.Ragu, S.M. Chemical Composition of Some Selected Fruit Peels. European-American Journals. Available online: https://www.eajournalsorg/journals/european-journal-of-food-science-and-technology-ejfst/vol-44-september-2016/chemical-composition-selected-fruit-peels/ (accessed on 19 October 2021).

[15] Afshar, M.Naser, MNutritive Values of Some Agro‒Industrial By‒products for Ruminants‒ A Review. World Journal of Zoology, 20083(2), 40-46.

[16] Adrizal, Y.H.; Robi, A.Maria, E.M. Evaluation of Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] Waste Fermented Using Different Local Microorganism solutions as Poultry Feed. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 201716, 84-89.

[17] Olosunde, A.O. Utilization of pineapple waste as feed for West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. M.Phil Thesis. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 2010.

[18] El-Waziry, A.M.Alkoaik, F.Khalil, A.I.Metwally, H.Al-Mahasneh, M.A. Evaluation of Tomato and Cucumber Wastes as Alternative Feeds for Ruminants Using Gas Production Technique in vitroAsian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 20138, 821-826.

[19] Ipinjolu, J.K. erformance of juvenile orange koi carp (Cyprinucarpio leanneanus) fed diets supplemented with sweet orange peel meal: Body composition, nutrition, utilization and skin pigmentation. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Science, 200019(7), 228-229.

[20] Oloche, J.; Oluremi, O.I.A.Shaapera, S.S. Performance of West African dwarf goats fed gamba grass and supplemented with diets containing treated and untreated sweet orange peels. Proc. 14th Ann. Conf of Nig. Soc. for Anim. Prod. Held 15th – 19th March 2015, NAPRI/ABU, Zaria. 2015; pp. 88-490.

[21] BampidisRobinsonCitrus_by-products_as_ruminant_feeds_A_Review. Available online: (accessed on 19 October 2021).

Related Articles