Landscape Architecture, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Dec  2021, Pages 1-12; DOI:

Investigating the Consequences of Corona Outbreak from the Perspective of Economic Geography with Emphasis on Urban Economy in Iran

Landscape Architecture, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Dec  2021, Pages 1-12.


Marziyeh Medhat 1* , Seyed Mahmood Misaghi 1 , Mohammad Taghipour 2

1 Department of Urban Planning, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Ooj Institute of Higher Education, Qazvin, Iran

Received: 26 July 2021; Accepted: 28 August 2021; Published: 15 September 2021

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 1034 | Download 620


Covid 19 is not only a global epidemic that has affected public health, but has also severely affected the global economy and financial markets. Significant declines in income, rising unemployment, and disruption of urban transportation, services, and manufacturing industries are among the consequences of the Covid 19 epidemic.  According to an initial forecast by the International Monetary Fund 2020, the global economy has shrunk by about 3% in 2020. These effects will be greater in developing countries and their metropolises than in developed countries. Therefore, this study is an attempt to explain the problems and consequences of urban economics in the face of the epidemic damage of Covid 19 as well as neglected issues that will be learned from the experience of the consequences of this epidemic in the field of economic geography for managers and the planners of urban economic development. The type of this research is descriptive-analytical in terms of method and applied in terms of purpose. The information contained in this research has been collected through library documents and the results have been achieved by analyzing them. The results show that as a result of the Covid 19 epidemic, the urban economy in Iran has suffered from a deep recession, the depth of which depends on the continuation of the disease. Urban economy in Iran from the perspective of urban governance in order to develop and finance the provision of urban services; The revenue side of the municipal budget, as well as the household economy, has suffered the most during the corona outbreak due to rising unemployment. In general, it can be said that most of the effects of Corona in Iran have been on the cities from a geographical point of view, and the economic sectors, especially the service sector, have suffered the most, in a way that recreation, transportation, tourism and services that actually deal with human communities and are influenced by the corona.


Covid Epidemic 19, Urban Economics, Iran


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Nahiduzzaman, K.M.Lai, S.K. What does the global pandemic COVID-19 teach us? Some reflections. Journal of Urban Management, 20209(3), 261-262.

[2] Dodds, K.; Broto, V.C.Detterbeck, K.Jones, M.Mamadouh, V.Amutsindela, M.Woon, C.Y. The COVID-19 pandemic: Territorial, political and governance dimensions of the crisis. Territory, Politics, Governance, 20208(3), 289-298.

[3] UN. Policy brief: COVID-19 in an urban world2020.

[4] Biglieri, S.; De Vidovich, L.Keil, R. City as the core of contagion? Repositioning COVID-19 at the social and spatial periphery of urban society. Cities & Health, 2020; pp. 1-3.

[5] Hamidi, S.Sabouri, S.Ewing, R. Does density aggravate the COVID-19 pandemic? Early findings and lessons for planners. Journal of the American Planning Association, 2020; pp. 1-15.

[6] ManpowerIl mondo del lavoro al tempo del Covid-2019 L'impegno di Manpower Group per fronteggiare l’emergenza pandemica e accelerare l’implementazione dell'Agenda digitale in Italia. 2020.

[7] TaghipourM.; VosoughA.; KazemiN.; AhitabarP. The Study of the Application of Risk Management in the Operation and Maintenance of Power Plant Projects”. International Journal of Business Management, 2018, 3(3), 98-110.

[8] TaghipourM.; ShabrangM.; HabibiM.H.; ShamamiNAssessment and Analysis of  Risk Associated with the Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Project Using FMEA Technique (Including Case-Study). Management, 2020, 3(1), 29-46.

[9] TaghipourM.; HoseinpourZ.; MahboobiM.; ShabrangM.; LashkarianTConstruction projects risk management by risk allocation approach using PMBOK standard. Journal of Applied Environmental And Biological Sciences, 2015, 5(12), 323-329.

[10] Taghipour .M; Seraj .F; Seraj .M. Necessity Analysis and Optimization of Implementing Projects with The Integration Approach of Risk Management and Value Engineering. A Journal of Economics and Management, 2015, 5(1), 330-346.

[11] TaghipourM.; SharifzadehS.; SerajF. Risk assessment and analysis of the state DAM  construction projects using FMEA technique. Trends in Life Sciences An International Peer-reviewed Journal, 2015, 4(2).

[12] Jalili, L; Ghafourian, M; Toopal, T; Taghipour, M. Comparative Study of Khaje Rashid al-Din Views on Rab-e Rashidi Islamic Utopia and Kevin Lynch IdeasJournal International Journal of Archaeology, 2015, 3(5)39-47.

[13] KhodakhahJ.L.; Kasrayee, F.; KhodakhahJ.S.; Taghipouret, M. The Analysis of Effect Colour Psychology on Environmental Graphic in Childeren Ward at Medical Centers. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 2016, 5(2)51-61.

[14] Taghipour, M.; Yadi, H. Seismic Analysis (Non-Linaear Static Analysis (Pushover) and Nonlinera Dynamic) on Cable-Stated Bridge. American Journal of Civil Engineering, 2015, 3(5), 129-139.

[15] TaghipourM.; Ahmadi SarchoghaeiJ. Evalation of Tourist Attractions in Borujerd County with Emphasis on Development of New Markets by Using Topsis Model. Science Journal of Business and Management, 2015, 3(5), 175-189.

[16] AbdollahzadehN.; TaghipourM. Identify and Priorize Suitable Area for Ecotourism Development using Multi-criteria Analysis for Development of the Tourism Market in Iran (Nathanz City). International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,Engineering and Technology, 2015, 4(11), 11525-11536.

[17] MirzaieF.; NazariA.; ZarghamB.H.; TaghipourM. The Relationship Between Social Bearing Capacities with Conflict as a Result, in the Perception of the Visiting Historical Sites. Journal of Investment and Management, 2015, 4(6), 403-408.

[18] TaghipourM.; MahboobiM.; NikoeifarA.; SoofiM.E. Analysing the Effects of Physical Conditions of the Workplace on Employee’s Productivity (Including Case Study). International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, 2015, 3(4), 111-119.

[19] TaghipourM.; MoghadamA.; MoghadamN.S.B. Implementation of Software-Efficient DES Algorithm. Advances in Networks, 2015, 3(1), 7-22.

[20] TaghipourM.; SerajF.; Amin, M.; Changiz, D.M. Evaluating CCPM method versus CPM in multiple petrochemical projects. Management2020, 3(3), 1-20.

[21] TaghipourM.; SoofiM.E.; MahboobiM.; AbdiJ. Application of Cloud Computing in System Management in Order to Control the Process. Management, 2020, 3(3), 34-55.

[22] MedhatM.; TaghipourM. Investigating the Role of Social Capital in Recreating the Historical-Cultural Context of Shiraz. Turkish Journal Of Computer And Mathematics Education, 2021, (Accepted).

[23] Ferguson, N.Laydon, D.NedjatiG.G.; et al. Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand. Imperial College London2020.

[24] Madhav, N.; Oppenheim, B.; Gallivan, M.Mulembakani, P.Rubin, E.Wolfe, N. Pandemics: Risks, Impacts, and Mitigation. In D. T. Jamison, H. Gelband, S. Horton, P. Jha, R. Laxminarayan, C. N. Mock, & R. Nugent (Eds.), Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (3rd ed.). The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. 2017.

[25] Keogh-Brown, M.; McDonald, S.Edmunds, J.Beutels, P.Smith, R. The macroeconomic costs of a global influenza pandemic. Presented at the 11th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Helsinki, Finland; Presented at the 11th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Helsinki, Finland. 2008.

[26] Garrett, T.A. Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 200726.

[27] Barro, R.J. Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions and Mortality in U.S. Cities during the Great Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 (Working Paper No. 27049; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. 2020.

[28] World Economic Forum. A visual history of pandemics. World Economic Forum2020, March.

[29] Jonas, O.B. Pandemic Risk (p. 40)World Development Report 2014 on Risk and Opportunity: Managing Risks for Development2013.

[30] Jonung, L.Roeger, W. The macroeconomic effects of a pandemic in Europe: A model-based assessment. DG ECFIN, European Commission, Brussels. 2006.

[31] Fan, J.; Liu, X.; Pan, W.; Bao, S. Epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus disease-19 in Gansu Province, China 2020. Emerg.

[32] ILO MonitorCOVID-19 and the world of work. Third edition Updated estimates and analysis2020.

[33] Gourinchas, P.O.Flattening the pandemic and recession curves. Mitigating the COVID Economic Crisis: Act Fast and Do Whatever. 2020.

[34] OECDOECD Economic Outlook, Volume 2020 Issue 2: Preliminary version, No. 108, OECD Publishing, Paris.