Agricultural Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 4, Aug  2020, Pages 10-26; DOI:

Income Determinant And Inequality Among Households Around National Parks In Nigeria

Agricultural Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 4, Aug  2020, Pages 10-26.


Jacob Daniel Etim 1* , James Akumba Ityavyar 2 , Nelson Imaobong Ufot 1

1 Forestry and Wildlife Department, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2 Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

Received: 29 April 2020; Accepted: 23 June 2020; Published: 27 August 2020

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This paper examines income determinants and inequality among household living around national parks in Nigeria, using household data collected through questionnaires administered randomly among the households in three national parks. The data obtained were analyzed using probability and non-probability statistical analysis such as regression and analysis of variance to test for mean difference between parks. The result obtained indicates that majority of the household heads were male (92.57%0, between the age class of 21 - 40 years (44.90%), had non-formal education (38.16%), were farmers (65.21%), owned land (95.44%), with a household size of 1 - 5 (36.67%) and an annual income range of ₦401,000 - ₦600,000 (24.58%). Also, basic household assets such as age, adult and cattle equivalents, education and land possession where significant factors (p<0.01) that affected households’ income, while income inequality was location specific. The study recommends improvement in infrastructures and social capital as avenues to improve the livelihood and ensure positive conservation behaviors in the study area.


Income Inequality, National Parks, Livelihood, Household Assets, Conservation, Nigeria


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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