Applied Physics, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun  2020, Pages 47-59; DOI:

Effect of pH on the Optical and Electrical Properties of PbAgS Ternary Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition

Applied Physics, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun  2020, Pages 47-59.


Ezeobele Emmanuel Emeka 1* , Ezenwa Ifeyinwa Amaka 2 , Okoli Nonso Livinus 3

1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria

2 Department of Industrial Physics, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria

3 Department of Physics, Legacy University Okija, Okija, Nigeria

Received: 19 April 2020; Accepted: 15 May 2020; Published: 25 May 2020

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 908 | Download 545


This work presents the successful deposition of Lead Silver Sulphide (PbAgS) by simple chemical bath method under varying pH conditions. Varying pH was achieved using different volume concentration of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) solution. The final bath solution for the deposition of the films contained aqueous solutions of Pb(NO3)2, AgNO3, thiourea, TEA and EDTA. Pb(NO3)2, AgNO3 and thiourea served as precursors for Pb2+, Ag+, and S2- respectively while EDTA and TEA were used as  complexing agents. NH4OH served as pH adjuster. The deposited film properties were characterized for optical and electrical properties using a Janway UV – VIS spectrophotometer and 4 Point Probe (Keithley Four Point Probe: Model 67005). From the spectral analysis of absorbance, other optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, and extinction coefficient and band gap energy were obtained. The films show high absorbance in the UV region and high transmittance in the VIS – NIR regions, while reflectance is generally low. The films showed direct band gap energy range of 1.89 eV – 2.30 eV. The result showed that band gap decreased as pH increases. Film thickness increased from 493.83 nm to 945.52 nm as pH increases. Electrical properties of the films showed that the deposited PbAgS thin films are semiconducting films with electrical conductivity within the range of 1.337 × 10-3 (s/cm) and 9.334 × 10-3 (s/cm). Electrical conductivity of the films were found to increase as pH increases from 10.30 to 11.20.


Optical Properties, Band Gap, CBD, Electrical Properties


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Shinen, M.H.Al-Saati, S.A.A.Razooqi, F.Z. Preparation of high transmittanceTiO2 thin films by sol-gel technique as antireflection coating. Journal of Physics: Conf. series, 20181032(012018), 1-12, DOI:

[2] Ezenwa A.I.; OkerekeA.N.OkoliN.L. Comparative Analysis of the Absorbance Spectra of Copper Sulphide, Cadmium Sulphide and Cadmium Sulphide/Copper Sulphide FilmsCOOU Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 20171(1), 69-76.

[3] EzenwaI.A.; OkoliL.N. Optical and Structural Characterization of FeCuS Ternary Thin Films. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research, 20153(4), 2202-2206.

[4] Okoli, L.N.Ezenwa, I.A., Elekalachi, C.I.; Okpaneje, O.T.OkoyeV.C. Time Optimization of Chemically Deposited Cadmium Silver Sulphide (CdAgS) Ternary Thin Films at Room Temperature, Physics Journal, 20162(2), 88-95.

[5] Ezenwa, I.A. Effect of Film Thickness on the Transmittivity of Chemical Bath Synthesized PbS Thin Film. Research Journal of Engineering Sciences, 20132(2), 23-25,

[6] Ezeobele, E.E.Ezenwa, I.A. Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide Ternary Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Method. International Journal of Science and Technology. 20154(1), 13-23.

[7] Uhuegbu, C.C. Solution Growth and Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide Ternary Thin Films. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 201010(04) 46-53.

[8] Oriaku, C.I.Ezema, F.I.Osuwa, J.C. Fabrication and Optical Constants of CdMnS Ternary Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 200910(1), 413-416.

[9] Ezema F.I.; EkwealorA.B.C.OsujiR.U. Optical properties of chemical bath deposited nickel oxide (NiOx) thin films. Superficies y Vacío, 200821(1), 6-10.

[10] Egwunyenga, N.J.Ezenwaka, L.N.Ezenwa, I.A.Okoli, N.L. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO/MgO superlatticeMaterials Research Express, 20196(10), 1-9.

[11] Ismail, B., Mushtaq, S. and Khan AEnhanced Grain Growth in the Sn Doped Sb2S3 Thin Film Absorber Materials for Solar Cell Applications. Chalcogenide Letters, 201411(1), 37-45.

[12] Ijeh, R.O.; Nwanya, A.C.Nkele, A. C.Madiba, I.G.Khumalo, Z.; Bashir, A.K.H.Osuji, R.U.Maaza, M.Ezema, F.I. Magnetic and optical properties of electrodeposited nanospherical copper doped nickel oxide thin films. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 2019113, 233-239DOI:

[13] Al-Dahaan, S.A.J.Al-khayatt, A.H.O.Salman, M. K. The optical Properties of Fe2O3 Thin Film Prepared by Chemical spray pyrolysis Deposition (CSP). Journal of Kufa – Physics20146(2), 16-23.

[14] Ohwofosirai, A.Femi, M.D.Nwokike, A.N.Toluchi, O.J.Osuji, R.U.Ezekoye, B. A.  (). Study of the Optical Conductivity, Extinction Coefficient and Dielectric Function of CdO by Sucessive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) Techniques. American Chemical Science Journal, 20144(6)736-744. DOI:

[15] Ezenwaka, L.N.Umeokwonna, N.S.Okoli, N.L. Optical, structural, morphological, and compositional properties of cobalt doped tin oxide (CTO) thin films deposited by modified chemical bath method in alkaline medium. Ceramics International, 202046(5), 6318-6325DOI:

[16] SureshS.; Isha, D. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films and characterization. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering2017, 15(3), 222-227DOI:

[17] Bekkari, R.Jaber, B.Labrim, H.Quafi, M.Zayyoun, N.Laahab, L. Effect of Solvents and Stabilizer Molar Ratio on the Growth Orientation of Sol – Gel Derived ZnO Thin Films. International Journal of Photoenergy, 20193164043, 1-7DOI:

[18] Bukhari, I.M.Jalil, Z. Structural and Opticla Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) based Thin Film Deposited by Sol – Gel Coating Method. Journal of Physics: Conf. series, 20181116(032020), 1-8DOI: .

[19] Tezel, F.M.Ozdemir, O.Kariper, I.AThe Effects of pH on Structural and Optical Characterization of Iron oxide Thin Films. Surface Review and Letters, 201724(4), 17500511-10. DOI:

[20] Ongwen, N.O.Oduor, A.O.Ayieta, E.O. Effect of Concentration of Reactants on the Optical Properties of Iron – Doped Cadmium Stannate Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis. American Journal of Materials Science20199(1)1-7DOI:

[21] Sreedev, P.Rakhesh, V.Roshina N.S. Optical Characterization of ZnO thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Method. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018377(012086)1-7DOI:

[22] Abouda, A.A.Mukherjeeb, A.Revaprasaduc, N.Mohamed, A.N. The effect of Cu-doping on CdS thin films deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique. Journal of Material Research and Technology, 20198(2)2021-2030DOI:

[23] AitH.A.Atourki, L.Labchir, N.Ouafi, M.Abouabassi, K.Elfanaoui, A.; Bouabid, K. Optical and dielectric properties of electrochemically deposited p-Cu2O films. Materials Research Express, 20207(016424), 1-9DOI:

[24] Mushtaq, S.Ismail, B.Raheel, M.Zeb, A. Nickel Antimony Sulphide Thin Films for Solar Cell Application: Study of Optical Constants. Natural Science, 20168, 33-40DOI:

[25] Tauc, J.Grigorovici, R.Vancu, A. Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium. Phys. Status Solidi1966, 15(2), 627-637, DOI:

[26] Philipus, B.Waremra, R.S. Analysis of Electrical Properties using the Four Point Probe Method. Web of Conferences, 201873(13019), 1-4DOI:

[27] Henry, J.Mohanraj, K.; Sivakumar, G. Electrical and optical properties of CZTS thin films prepared by SILAR method. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 20164(1), 81-84DOI:

[28] EzenwaI.A., OkerekeN.A.OkoliN.L. Electrical Properties of Copper Selenide Thin Films. IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE), 20131(6), 1-4.

[29] Kumar, S.Jeon, H.C.Kang, T.W.Seth, R.Panwar, S.Shinde, S.K.Waghmode, D.P.R Saratale, G.S.Choubey, R.K. Variation in chemical bath pH and the corresponding precursor concentration for optimizing the optical, structural and morphological properties of ZnO thin films. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 20193017747–17758DOI:

[30] Hone, F.G.Dejene, F.B. Cationic concentration and pH effect on the structural, morphological and optical band gap of chemically synthesized lead sulfide thin films. Journal of material research and technology, 20198(1), 467-474DOI:

[31] Raut, V.S.Lokhande, C.D.Killedar, V.V. Studies on effect of pH on structural, optical and morphological properties of chemi-synthesized CdSe grains. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 201710(1), 568-572.

[32] Sivakumar, K.Senthil K.V.Muthukumarasamy, N.Thambidurai, M.; Senthil, T.S. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating method. Bulletin of Materials Science, 201235(3), 327-331DOI:

[33] Ravichandiran, C.; Sakthivelu, A.Davidprabu, R.Valanarasu, S.Kathalingam, A.Ganesh, V.AlFaify, S. In-depth study on structural, optical, photoluminescence and electrical properties of electrodeposited Cu2O thin films for optoelectronics: An effect of solution pHMicroelectronic Engineering, 2019210, 27-34DOI:

[34] Kariper, A.Guneri, E.Gode, F.Gumus, CEffect of pH on the physical properties of CdS thin films deposited by CBD. Chalcogenide Letters, 20129, 27-40.

[35] Veena, E.Bangera, K.V.Shivakumar, G.K. Effective role of thickness on structural, electrical and optical properties of lead sulphide thin films for photovoltaic applications. Materials Science and Engineering: B, 2017223, 64-69DOI: 

[36] Göde, F.Güneri, E.; Emen, F.M.Emir Kafadar, V.Ünlü, S. Synthesis, structural, optical, electrical and thermoluminescence properties of chemically deposited PbS thin films. Journal of Luminescence, 2014147, 41-48DOI:

[37] Rodríguez, A.N.Nair, M.T.S.Nair, P.K. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited silver sulfide thin films. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 200520(6), 576-585DOI:

Related Articles