Education Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Sep  2020, Pages 38-51; DOI:

An Appraisal of Microbiological Qualities and Loads of “Fufu” in Selected Licensed and Non-Licensed Chop Bars in the Central Region of Ghana

Education Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Sep  2020, Pages 38-51.


Patience Owusua Annoh 1* , Juliana Tawiah 2 , Gifty Akorfa Darkwah 3 , Philomena Arthur 4

1 Department of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, Seventh Day Adventist College of Education, Koforidua-Asokore, Ghana

2 Department of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, Ola College of Education, Cape Coast, Ghana

3 Department of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, Mount Mary College of Education, Somanya, Ghana

4 Department of Vocational Education, Saint Louis College of education, Kumasi, Ghana

Received: 1 February 2020; Accepted: 16 April 2020; Published: 18 May 2020

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 40 | Download 24


The study examined microbiological qualities and loads of “fufu” in selected licensed and non-licensed Chop Bars in the Central Region of Ghana. A guided observation schedule (ICOSFUP) was used to record unhygienic practices from the chop bars. Specimens of source of water for turning “fufu”, mortar, pestle, “fufu” and water for turning “fufu” were analysed for total heterotrophic bacteria, yeast and mould, total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria, and E. coli on Nutrient Agar, OGYE Agar, M-Endo Agar, MacConkey Faecal Coliform Agar, and Hichrome Agar respectively. Both the Multiple Tube Fermentation and Membrane Filtration methods were used for the analysis.  It was found out that water used for turning “fufu” made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.485) to the microbial contamination of “fufu”. All the microbiological parameters tested for far exceeded their standardized limits in “fufu” (16.5-5983.25 cfu/1ml/100ml). Findings of the study indicated that there is high amount of microbial contamination in “fufu” being sold and consumed in Cape Coast metropolis. The study recommended that, the Ghana Tourism Authority and Cape Coast chop bar owners Association should at regular intervals, collect and test “fufu” specimens from licensed and non-licensed chop bars to determine the microbial loads in the “fufu” to reduce the possible sources of contamination in “fufu” preparation in the metropolis.


Appraisal, Microbiological, Qualities, Loads, “Fufu”, Chop Bars, Ghana


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Rande, W.L. Professional food service. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1996.

[2] Lelieveld, H.L.M. Sources of contamination. In H.L.M. Lelieveld (Ed.). Hygiene in food processingCambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.2003; pp. 61-75.

[3] Oti-Mensah, M.A. Catering made easy. Accra: Martmag Publications2005.

[4] Ghana Tourism AuthorityMinimum requirements for licensing of traditional catering establishments. 2010.

[5] Ministry of Health. Monthly out-patients’ morbidity. 2010.

[6] Ghana Broadcasting Corporation. Ghana-Cholera. Available online: (accessed on 24 October 2019).

[7] Tawiah, J.Annoh, O.P.Darkwah, A.G. Sources of Microbial Contamination of “Fufu” Production in Ghana: Selected Licensed and Non-licensed Chop Bars in Cape Coast Metropolis. American Journal of Food Science and Health, 20195(3), 112-12.

[8] Gisslen, W. Professional cooking (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley1995.

[9] Levy, P. Ghana: Cultures of the world. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish Corporation1999.

[10] Opare-Obisaw, C.Asante, I.K.Annan, E.K. Sensory characteristics of “fufu” prepared with cassava roots (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) stored in polyethylene sacks. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 200428(1), 14-17.

[11] Jackson, E.A. South of the Sahara: Traditional cooking from the lands of West Africa. London: Fantail1999.

[12] Kordylas, J.M. Processing and preservation of tropical and sub-tropical foods. Hongkong: ELBS Macmillan1991.

[13] Lugosi, PCampus foodservice experiences and student wellbeing: An integrative review for design and service interventions. International Journal of Hospitality Management20191-18.

[14] klomanov, I.AAppraisal and assessment of world water resources. Water International, 200025(1), 11-32.

[15] New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Interpreting the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water: An environmental report. Hampshire: Department of Environmental Services2010.

[16] Todar, K. Pathogenic “E. coli”. Online Textbook of Bacteriology. University of Wisconsin–Madison Department of Bacteriology2007.

[17] Berg, S.C.Rice, E.W.Karlin, R.J.Allen, M.J. Escherichia coli: The best biological drinking water indicator for public health protection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Journal, 200088, 1068-1168.

[18] Mazengia, M.S.Chidavaenzi, M.Bradley, M. Effective and culturally acceptable water storage in Zimbabwe: Maintaining the quality of water. Journal of Environmental Health, 200264, 15-18.

[19] Levy, K.; Nelson, K.L.Hubbard, A.Eisenberg, J.N.S. Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: Case Study in Northern Coastal Ecuador. American Journal of Tropical Medicine Hygiene, 201286(3)499-507.

[20] Centre for Disease Control. Escherichia coli. National Centre for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Available online: (accessed on 15 May 2019).

[21] Food Standards Agency. A report of the study of infectious intestinal disease in England2000.

[22] Singleton, P.Sainsbury, D. Dictionary of microbiology and molecular biology (3rd ed.). West Sussex, Chichester: Smith-John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.2001.

[23] Safe Drinking Water Foundation. Heterotrophic plate count. 2007Available online: HPC2.pdf (accessed on 15 May 2019).

[24] World Health Organization. Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety. London: IWA Publishing2003.

[25] Colford, J.M.Rees, J.R.Wade, T.J.Khalakdina, A.Hilton, J.F.Ergas, I.J.Burns, S.Benker, A.Ma, C.Bowen, C.Mills, D.C.Vugia, D.J.Juranek, D. D.Levy, D.A. Participant blinding and gastrointestinal illness in a randomized, controlled trial of an in-home drinking water intervention. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20028, 29-36.

[26] Health Canada. Guidelines for Canadian drinking-water quality: Guideline technical document bacterial waterborne pathogens, current and emerging organisms of concern. Ontario, Canada: Health Canada2006.

[27] Prescott, L.M.Harley, J.P.Klein, D.A. The influence of environmental factors on microbiological growth (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.1999.

[28] Moreau, C. Moulds, toxins and food. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Interpreting the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water: An environmental report. Hampshire: Department of Environmental Services2000.

[29] Parker, R. Introduction to food science. New York, NY: Delmar Learning2005.

[30] Ghana Standards Authority. Quality requirements for food2009.

[31] Australia/New Zealand. (2002). Australian New Zealand microbiological limits for food. Available online: (accessed on 20 December 2019).

[32] Ntiforo, A. Street food situation in Ghana. Accra: Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research2001.

[33] Cape Coast Municipal Authority. Local government bulletin. Cape Coast: Cape Coast Municipal Assembly2000.

[34] Food and Agriculture Organisation. Important food issues. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2019).

[35] Fowler, F.J. Survey research methods. New York, NY: Sage Publications1993.

[36] Lelieveld, H.L.M. Sources of contamination. In H. L. M. Lelieveld (Ed.). Hygiene in food processingCambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.2003; pp. 61-75.

[37] Creswell, J.WResearch Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods2016.

[38] Approaches (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. MacArthur, R. L., & Abane, A. M. Compliance with food safety measures by traditional caterers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. International Journal of  Home Economics, 20102, 141-152.

[39] Crosby, P.B. Quality is still free: Making quality certain in uncertain times. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company1996.