Energy Research, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Sep  2019, Pages 39-48; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Leaching of Heavy Metals through Soil/Fly Ashes of Waste Biomass Materials and Lignite

, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Sep  2019, Pages 39-48.

DOI: 10.31058/

Despina Vamvuka 1* , Despina Pentari 1

1 Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece

Received: 15 August 2019; Accepted: 30 August 2019; Published: 9 September 2019

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This work investigated the environmental impact of ashes produced from combustion of various biomass wastes and one lignite, during experiments in a fluidized bed unit. Continuous leaching experiments were conducted in columns for the soil-ash mixtures. Solid materials were characterized by mineralogical and chemical analyses using X-ray diffraction analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer analysis. The leachates were analyzed for trace element concentrations and pH. According to the results, waste biomass ashes were rich in Cu, Zn, Sr, Mn and Cr, whereas the content of heavy metals in lignite ash was quite small. The bio-solid ash contained an elevated amount of Pb too. Toxic metal ions were released in low quantities through the soil, below the legislative limit values. The low extraction potential of the trace elements from the soil/ash mixtures was owned to the high alkalinity of the leachates, basically the presence of calcium minerals, as well as the mineralogical and chemical composition of the solids involved. The higher mobility of Sr and Cr from all ashes implies their potential association with exchangeables, carbonates, sulphates or organic matter.


Heavy Metals, Fly Ashes, Lignite, Waste Materials


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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