Applied Chemistry, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar  2020, Pages 1-9; DOI:

Study on Pigment-Extender Effect of Some Nigerian Clays and Calcium Carbonate in Emulsion Paint

Applied Chemistry, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar  2020, Pages 1-9.


Pauline Uchechukwu Chris Okafor 1* , Rosemary Uchechukwu Arinze 1 , Joy Nwando Nwokoye 1 , Remmy Wisdom Uche Uzoechi 1

1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Received: 1 December 2019; Accepted: 20 February 2020; Published: 22 March 2020

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 200 | Download 120


This work investigated the pigment-extender effect of Aningene clay, Nwangene clay and calcium trioxocarbonate(iv) in emulsion paint. The clay samples were prepared by washing, sedimentation, drying, grinding and sieving. The clay particles obtained were calcined at 750 °C. The calcined and uncalcined clay were used to formulate emulsion paint. Physical and performance properties of the produced paint were determined. The compositional and morphological analyses were also carried out on the calcined clays via X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The XRF showed that the Aningene clay and Nwangene clay contained silica (SiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) percentages of 43.02%, 66.20% and 23.92%, 27.50% respectively. The Aningene clay also contained 6.08% of iron oxide (Fe2O3), the rest of the constituents is in small quantities for both clays. The SEM micrograph of the calcined clays showed that the clay particles are 50 um in size. The physical tests showed that the pH and specific gravities of the clay formulated paint were lower than that of the calcium trioxocarbonate (IV) formulated paint. While the viscosities were also higher than that of the calcium trioxocarbonate (IV) formulated paint. The performance tests showed that the opacity and spread rate of the clay formulated paints were lower than calcium carbonate formulated paint. Also, none of the clay formulated paints chalked on drying.  The Aningene clay formulated paint gave better paint property than the Nwangene clay formulated paint. Hence, the Aningene clay should be used in production of emulsion paint and Nwangene clay should be used in the production of harsh paints.


Emulsion Paint, Calcium Trioxocarbonate(IV), Aningene Clay, Nwangene Clay, XRF, SEM


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Idris, M.N.; RashanJ.A. Laboratory Studies on Small Scale Production of  Three Different Grades of Emulsion Paints. Journal of Pure Science and Technology, 2017, 1(1), 2579-0536.

[2] OparaP.N. Production of Textcoat and Emulsion Paints Stainless For Youth Skill and Entrepreneurship Empowerment ProgramJournal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research2014, 1(1), 96-102.

[3] Norris, S.R. The Chemical Process Industries. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Incoporation, New York. 1986; pp. 11.

[4] Igwebike, O.; Clementina, D. Comparative Evaluation of Pigment-Extender Effects of Calcium Carbonate and Kaolin in Emulsion PaintInternational Journal of Science and Technology, 2015, 4(12), I 2049-7318.

[5] ChukwujikeI.C.; IgweI.O. Extender Properties of Some Nigerian ClaysJournal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2016, 4, 279-291.

[6] Eneh, O.C. A Guide for the Paint Maker. Computer Edge Publishers, Enugu, 2016; pp. 7.

[7] Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS)Test Methods for Paints and Varnishes2015.

[8] Ewulonu, C.M.; Igwe I.O.; Onyeagoro, G.N. Synthesis and Characterization of Local Clay-Titanium Dioxide Core-Shell Extender Pigments. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research2016, 43-6.

[9] Mark, U. Characterization of Ibere and Oboro Clay Deposits in Abia State, Nigeria for Refractory Applications. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences2010, 6, 296- 305.

[10] Haruna, M.K.; David, O.P.; Timothy, M.C. Characterization of Mayo-Belwa Clay. Thesis Submitted to the Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Yola. 2014; pp. 8.

[11] Igwe, I.O.; EzeamakuL.U. The Use of Local Clays in Alkyd Paint Formulation. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 2010, 5(3), 81-94.

[12] Hare, C.; Beck, R. Coating System Design. Alberta, Canada. Available online: (accessed on 5 April 2015).

[13] Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS). Test Methods for Paints and Varnishes, NIS 269:2017,Standards  Organization of Nigeria (SON), Lagos, Nigeria, 2017, part 6, pp. 1-28.

[14] Boxall,  J.; Von Fraunhofer, J.A. Concise Paint Technology. Chemical Publishing Company, New York. 1986; pp. 6.

Related Articles