Environment, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Sep  2019, Pages 1-10; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2019.32001 10.31058/j.envi.2019.32001

Germination, Phytochemical Composition and Oxidation Products of Abelmoscheus Esculentus (Okra) Plant Cultivated on Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil

, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Sep  2019, Pages 1-10.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2019.32001

Onyegeme Okerenta Blessing Minaopunye 1* , Alozie Sunday Chukwuemaka 1

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt

Received: 30 July 2019; Accepted: 20 August 2019; Published: 31 August 2019

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 247 | Download 148


The indiscriminate disposal of spent engine oil (SEO) drained from engines after maintenance has been found to affect plant growth. This study evaluated the effect of SEO on growth, phytochemical composition, and oxidation products of Abelmoscheus esculentus (Okra) plant. A potted experiment simulated environment was developed at the University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, to investigate the minimum concentration of SEO that could be inhibitory to the growth of A. esculentus (Okra) seed. The plastic containers filled with 4900g of humus soil were contaminated with various volumes Of SEO (0, 49, 147 and 294ml/4900g of humus soil) to give a percentage concentration of 0%, 1%, 3%, and 6% respectively. Each treatment had three replicates arranged in a complete randomized block design. Germination studies carried out showed the number of seeds of okra that grew into seedling decreased with the increasing level of the contaminant. Percentage germination was found to decrease from 100% in 0ml to 66% in 49ml, 33% in 147ml and no growth in 294ml. Phytochemical composition of the leaves after 3 months showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in vitamin C, saponin and alkaloid and a significant increase (p<0.05) in flavonoid, cyanogenic glycoside and oxalate concentrations with a respective increase in SEO pollution. The result obtained in this study shows the phytotoxic effect of SEO and suggests that SEO at a concentration of 49ml (1%) /4900g of humus soil could be inhibitory to growth and seedling of Okra.


Abelmoschus Esculentus, Spent Engine Oil, Oxidation, Phytochemical, Polluted Soil


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Odjegba, V.J.; Sadiq, A.O. Effects of spent engine oil on the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthus hybridus L. The Envr. 2002, 22, 23-28.

[2] Agbogidi, O.M.; Nweke, F.U. Effects of crude oil polluted soil on the performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Moench in Delta State. Afr. J. Nat. Sci. 2005, 8, 311-35.

[3] Agbogidi, O.M; Nweke, F.U. Screening five cultivars of soya bean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) for adaptation in soils contaminated with crude oil. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria held at the University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, and 16th -20th October 2006; 570-572.

[4] Agbogidi, O.M. Response of six cultivars of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to spent engine oil. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2010b, 1(6), 139-142.

[5] Daniel-Kalio, L.A.; Pepple, S.F. Effect of Bonny light crude oil pollution of soil on the growth of dayflower (Commelina benghalensis L.) in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 2006, 10, 111-114.

[6] Ibemesin, R.I. Effect of salinity and wytch crude oil on Paspalum conjugation bergius (sour grass). J. Bio Sci. 2010, 10, 122-130.

[7] Olayinka, B.U.; Arinde, O.O. Effects of spent engine oil on germination and seedling growth of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). Insight Ethnopharmacology, 2012, 2(1), 5-9.

[8] Atuanya, E.I. Effect of oil pollution on the physical and chemical properties of soil. A case study of waste oil contaminated Delta soil in Bendel State. Nig. J. Appl. Sci. 1987, 5, 155-176.

[9] Lale, O.O.; Ezekwe, I.C.; Lale, N.E.S. Effect of spent lubricating oil pollution on some chemical parameters and the growth of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers). Resources Environ. 2014, 4(3), 173-179.

[10] Ahamefule, H.E.; Olaniyan, J.O.; Amana, S.M.; Eifediyi, E.K.; Ihem, E.; Nwokocha, C.C. Effects of spent engine oil contamination on soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) in an Ultisol. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 2017, 21(3), 421-428.

[11] Levine, R.L.; Garland, D.; Oliver, C.N.; Amici, A.; Climent, I.; Lenz, A.G.; Ahn, B.W.; Shaltiel, S.; Stadtman, E.R. Determination of carbonyl concentration in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol. 1990, 186, 464-478.

[12] Sofowara, A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Book Limited. Ibadan Nigeria 1993; 289.

[13] Trease, G.E.; Evans, W.C. Phytochemicals in Pharmacognosy. 15th ed.; Saunders Publishers, London. 2002; 42-44, 221- 229, 246- 249, 304-306,331-332, 391-393.

[14] Hewitt, E.J.; Dickes, G.J. Spectrophotometric measurements on ascorbic acid and their use for the estimation of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in plant tissues. Biochem. J. 1961, 78, 384-391.

[15] Jollow, D.J.; Mitchell, J.R.; Zampaglione, N.; Gillette, J.R. Bromobenzene induced liver necrosis: Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-Bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacology, 1974, 11(3), 151-169.

[16] Winther, J.R.; Thorpe, C. Quantification of thiols and disulfides. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2014, 1840, 838-846.

[17] Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, G.; Qu, D.; Gu, J.; Zhou, M.; Chai, L. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and response of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle in Bechmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. Chemosphere, 2007, 69, 99-107.

[18] Kar, A. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology Revised-Expanded 2nd Ed.; New Age International Limited Publishers New Delhi. 2007; 332-600.

[19] Agbogidi, O.M..; Egbuchua, C.O. Heavy metal concentrations of soil contaminated with spent engine oil in Asaba, Delta State. Acta Agr.Nig. 2010, 10 (1), 65-69.

[20] Madziga, H.A.; Sani, S.; Sandabe, U.K. Phytochemical and elemental analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana leaf. J. Am. Sci. 2010, 6 (11), 510-514.

[21] Nwaogu, L.A.; Ibegbulem, C.O.; Ujowundu, C.O.; Alozie S.C. Impact of some heavy metals in soil and oxidative stress indices and chlorophyll levels of Telfaria occidentalis leaves. Nig. J. Bioch. Mol. Biol. 2012, 27(1), 46-52.

[22] Shacter, E. Protein oxidative damage. Methods Enzymol. 2000, 319, 42836.

[23] Alderman, C.J.J.; Shah, S.; Foreman, J.C.; Chain, B.M.; Katz, D.R. The role of advanced oxidation protein products in regulation of dendritic cell function. Free Radical Biol. Med. 2002, 32(5), 377-385.

[24] Sahoo, S.; Awasthi, J.P.; Sunkar, R.; Panda S.K. Determining Glutathione Levels in Plants. Methods Mol. Biol. 2017, 1631, 273-277.

[25] Iriruaga E.T. Solid waste management in Nigeria, D-WASTE.COM. 2012; Available online: http://www.d-waste.com/new-infographics/item/124-solid-waste-management-in-nigeria.html?start=1 (accessed on 30 January 2019).

Related Articles