Environment, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Dec  2019, Pages 1-7; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2019.33001 10.31058/j.envi.2019.33001

The Ecology of Toads (Bufo Regularis) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Dec  2019, Pages 1-7.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2019.33001

Mogbo Tochukwu Chinedu 1* , Samuelson Chidolu Shalom 2

1 Bioconservation Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awkan, Nigeria

Received: 1 November 2019; Accepted: 20 November 2019; Published: 30 November 2019

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In a 4 weeks study, the ecology of toads in Nnamdi Azikiwe University was studied. Two sites/habitats (swampy water body at the girl’s hostel and the stream behind faculty of management sciences) were sampled twice weekly and the toads were collected by active search at night for relative toad density, and physiochemical properties of the water bodies. A total of eighty six (86) toads were collected; forty (48) from habitat A and thirty eight (38) from habitat B. Physiochemical parameters investigated include pH, conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, biological oxygen demand, temperature, turbidity. Numerically the population of habitat A was greater than that of habitat B, but statistical analysis using t-test showed no statistical significance between the two populations. The analysis of the water habitats in comparison with the regulatory limit or standard of the world health organization (WHO) and Nigeria Industrial standard (NIS) showed that the pH values of the both habitats were below the standard or regulatory limit. The temperature values were ambient and supportive of good surface water quality, Total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen (DO) was within acceptable limit of WHO while biological oxygen demand (BOD) exceeded the limit of WHO.


Toad, Bufo Regularis, Ecology, Physico-Chemical Parameters


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