Agricultural Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Aug  2019, Pages 11-22; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Improving Global Competitiveness of China in Wheat Export by Increasing Wheat Quality

Agricultural Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Aug  2019, Pages 11-22.

DOI: 10.31058/

Jošt Marijan 1* , Vesna Samobor 2 , Mirjana Mužić 3 , Duška Ćurić 4 , Lidija Drobac 5

1 Jost Seed-Research Co, Krizevci, Croatia

2 College of Agriculture at Krizevci, Krizevci, Croatia

2 Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Received: 24 June 2019; Accepted: 23 July 2019; Published: 22 August 2019

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 95 | Download 57


Technological value of wheat grain and flour, are affected by the a) genotype, b) environment, and c) agronomic management. China, the biggest wheat producer, due to lack of quality germ-plasm still import HRW from the US. The Chinese government considers food self-sufficiency as “a matter of national security”, and its great goal is to stop importing wheat, and even to become one of the leading wheat exporter. To achieve that goal, China has to have overproduction of high quality hard red wheat. In Croatia, as a results of long term breeding effort on high grain protein, a number of new high yieldind and good quality germ-plasm were developed, tested, described and the cultivar ownership offered for sale. Beside the Panonic plato this germ-plasm is well adapted also to some winter wheat growing regions in China. Plato of Panonic region, with rich soil and the semiarid climate is suitable for HRW production. By adequate investment, HRW production in Panonic region can provide wheat for export to the biggest wheat importer Egypt, and at the same time, the status of wheat exporter to the investor.


Winter Wheat for Export, High Yield, High Grain Protein, Wide Adaptability


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Bassetti Victoria; Davidson J.; Douglas L.; Tiffany Finck-Haynes. Bayer-Monsanto merger: big data, big agriculture, big problems. 2017, Friends of the Earth U.S., Open Markets Institute, and SumOfUs. Available online: (accessed on 24 June 2019).
[2] Carter P.B.; Moriss C.F.; Anderson J.A. Optimizing the SDS Sedimentation Test for End-Use Quality Selection in a Soft White and Club Wheat Breeding Program. Cereal Chemistry, 1999, 76(6), 907-911.
[3] Cakmak I.; Kalayci M.; Kaya Y.; Torun A.A.; Aydin N.; Wang Y. Biofortification and localization of zinc in wheat grain. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58, 9092-9102.
[4] Chungin Zou; Xiaopeng Gao; Rongli Shi; Xsiaoyun Fan; Fusuo Zhang. Micronutrient Deficiencies in Crop Production in China. In Alloway B.J. Ed. Micronutrient Deficiencies in Global Crop Production, 2008, Springer.
[5] Colvin G. Inside China’s $43 Billion Bid for Food Security. Finance-Agriculture 2017. Finance agriculture, 2017. Available online: (accessed on 24 June 2019).
[6] Guansheng Ma. Iron and zinc deficiencies in China: Existing problems and possible solutions. Peking University Health Science Center, Thesis Wageningen University, 2014, ISBN: 90-8504-560-6.
[7] Jaskulska Iwona; Jaskulski D.; Gałezewski L.; Knapowski T.; Kozera W.; Wacławowicz R. Mineral Composition and Baking Value of the Winter Wheat Grain under Varied Environmental and Agronomic Conditions. Hindawi Journal of Chemistry, 2018.
[8] Jošt M. Breeding wheat for high quality in Croatia. Proc. 5th International Wheat Conference. Ankara, Turky, 1996, 244-245.
[9] Jošt M.; T.S. Cox. Cluster analysis of Yugoslavian wheat cultivars based upon coefficients of parentage. Proc. of the 7th International Wheat Genetics Symp. Cambridge, 1988, 2, 1119-1123.
[10] Jošt M.; T.S. Cox. History of wheat breeding in Yugoslavia. In. M. Jošt (ed.): Handbook of Yugoslav winter wheat cultivars. Podravka, Koprivnica, 1989, 7(1), 1-18.
[11] Jošt M.; Cox T.S. Coefficients of parentage and cluster analysis of 142 Yugoslav Winter wheat cultivars. In. M. Jošt (ed.): Handbook of Yugoslav winter wheat cultivars. Podravka, Koprivnica, 1989, 7(1), 69-115.
[12] Jošt M. and Cox T.S. Relative genetic contributions of ancestral genotypes to Yugoslavian winter wheat cultivars. Euphytica, 1990, 45, 169-177.
[13] Jošt M.; Jošt Milica. Pedigrees of 142 Yugoslav winter wheat cultivars released from 1967 till 1986. In : Handbook of Yugoslav winter wheat cultivars. Podravka, 1989, 7(1), 19-29.
[14] Jošt M.; Fišter Radojka; Skenderija Maja; Mrazović Božena. Genetic basis of breadmaking quality of Croatian wheat cultivars. Prehrambeno-tehnol. Biotehnol. Rev. 1995, 11(3-4), 157-173.
[15] Jost M.; Samobor Vesna; Vukobratovic Marija; Ivanek-Martincic Marijana. Breeding wheat for high quality and disease resistance. ICC / IRTAC Cereal Conference, Paris, 2002. October 9-11.
[16] Jost M.; Samobor Vesna; Drobac Lidija. The Role of Wheat Cultivars Blend on Grain Yield and Backing Quality. American Journal of Agricultural Science, 2015, 2(5), 203-207.
[17] Jost M.; Samobor Vesna; Kvaternjak Ivka; Samobor D.; Sikiric P.; Drmic D.; Filipic B. The effects of wheat plant treatment with gastric pentadecapeptide BPC-157. Proc. 22th International Eco-Conference, Novi Sad, 2018, 145-154.
[18] Jošt M.; Vapa Ljiljana; Javornik Branka. Correlation between HMW glutenin subunits composition and bread making quality in progeny of two wheat crosses possessing 1B/1R chromosome translocation. Book of Abstracts. XII EUCARPIA Congress: Science for Plant Breeding, 1989, Göttingen, Germany, 27-4.
[19] Juanli Yuan, Jinyan Gao, Xin Li, Fahui Liu, Cisca Wijmenga, Hongbing Chen, Luud J. W. J. Gilissen. The Tip of the “Celiac Iceberg” in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 2013, 8(12), 1-14.
[20] Koning F. Celiac disease: caught between a rock and a hard place. Gastroenterology, 2005, 129(4), 1294-301.
[21] Kuhr S.L.; Johnson V.A.; Mattern P.J.; Wilhelmi K.D.; Schmidt J.W. Results of the tenth international winter wheat performance nursery grown in 1978. Research bulletin 1981, No. 296.
[22] Metakovsky E.V.; Knežević D.; Javornik B. Gliadin allele composition of Yugoslav winter wheat cultivars. Euphyticy, 1991, 54(3), 285-295
[23] Ming Zhang; Fang Duan; Zisen Mao. Empirical study on the sustainability of China’s grain quality improvement: The role of transportation, labor, and agricultural machinery. Int. J. Environ Res Public Health, 2018, 15(2);271
[24] Monasterio I.; Graham R.D. Breeding for trace minerals in wheat. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2000, 21(4), 392-396.
[25] Morgounov A.; Ferney H.; Izteleuovna A.; Dzhunusova M. Iron and zinc density in common wheat grown in Central Asia. Euphytica., 2007, 155, 193-203.
[26] Moraghan J.T.; Mascagni H.J. Environmentaland soil factors affecting micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities. In: Micronutrient in Agriculture, 2nd Ed.-SSSAbOOK Series, 1991, 4, 371-425.
[27] Sandström B; Arvidsson B; Cederblad Å; Björn-Rasmussen E. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of wheat extraction rate, zinc, calcium and protein content in meals based on bread. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1980, 33, 739-745.
[28] Saeed Akhtar. Zinc Status in South Asian Populations-An Update. J Health Popul Nutr., 2013, 31(2), 139-149.
[29] Samobor Vesna; Marija Vukobratović; M. Jošt. Effect of powdery mildew attack on quality parameters and experimental bread baking of wheat. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 2006, 87(2), 381-391.
[30] Samobor Vesna, Horvat Dijana, Kestely B. and Jošt M. Effect of stone meal on control of seed-borne diseases in wheat. Agronomski glasnik, 2008, 70(6), 563-572, and in M. Jošt and I. Miljković (Eds.) Proc. 2nd Mediterranean conference on organic agriculture in Croatia, Dubrovnik, April 2-6, 2008, 323-332.
[31] Samsel A. and Stephanie Seneff. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2013, 6(4), 159-184
[32] Shamsollah Ayoubi; Abdolmohammad Mehnatkesh; Ahmad Jalalian; Kanwar L. Sahrawat & Mahdi Gheysari Relationships between grain protein, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn contents in wheat and soil and topographic attributes. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 2014, 60(5), 625-638.
[33] Singh B.R.;Timsina Y.N.; Lind O.C.; Cagno S.; Janssens K. Zinc and Iron Concentration as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Their Localization in Wheat Grain. Front Plant Sci. 2018, 9, 307.
[34] Velu G.; Ortiz-Monasterio I.; Cakmak I.; Hao Y.; Singh R.P. Biofortification strategies to increase grain zinc and iron concentrations in wheat. Journal of Cereal Science, 2014, 59(3), 365-372.
[35] Wang L. Report of China National Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 (1): Summary Report. People’s Medical Publishing House. Beijing, China. 2005, 18-45.
[36] Zou Chungin; Xiaopeng Gao; mRongli Shi; Xsiaoyun Fan; Fusuo Zhang. Micronutrient Deficiencies in Crop Production in China. In: Alloway B.J. Ed. Micronutrient Deficiencies in Global Crop Production, Springer, 2008.

Related Articles