Waters, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Mar  2019, Pages 1-24; DOI: 10.31058/j.water.2019.11001 10.31058/j.water.2019.11001

Assessment of Residential Water Demand and Spatial Distribution in Cities in the West African Sahel: Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria in Perspective

Waters, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Mar  2019, Pages 1-24.

DOI: 10.31058/j.water.2019.11001

Joshua Ma’Aku Mark 1,2 , Ojeh Vincent Nduka 1* , Olajire Olabanji 2

1 Department of Geography, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria

2 African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology-in-English and Centre for Space Research Applications, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

Received: 21 October 2018; Accepted: 25 February 2019; Published: 4 April 2019

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 117 | Download 70


In the face of a growing demand for portable water catalyzed by population and rapid urbanization, there exist a precarious imbalance between water availability and accessibility by the populace. This study seeks to assess residential water demand and distribution as it relates to urban population change in Jalingo, Taraba State Mapping of the existing water supply network was achieved through Geo-referencing and digitization of scanned map obtained from Jalingo Water Agency; Landsat image of 1986, 2001 and 2016 were used for land use land cover classification and change detection analysis adopted to provide insight into spatio-temporal variation in urban extent; population data obtained from National Population Commission was used to analyze population trend  and density analysis; using simple regression analysis, the relationship between urban population change and water demand was established; and weighted overlay analysis (WOA) which incorporated elevation and the various land use and cover classes was adopted to identify suitable areas for siting proposed buffer stations and new service areas for water supply facilities within the study area. The results reveal that the population of Jalingo stands 159,950 with a growth rate of 3.2% coupled with spatial variation in density ranging from 10-80 people per km2 both in the core and peripheral areas. Using built-up area as an indicator of urban change, the associated urban expansion rate from 1986 to 2016 stands at 23%. The increase in population also correlated strongly with water demand (p-value<0.05) and indicates that water demand may outweigh supply at the current coverage of water distribution facilities. Furthermore, demand was projected to be about 7.9 billion cubic meters by 2031.  These therefore creates the need for optimization which proposed more buffer stations and facility expansion with a view to enhancing sustainable planning and management of residential water consumption and distribution in the study area.


Residential Water Demand, Spatial Distribution of Water, West African Sahel, Weighted overlay Analysis, Population, Jalingo, Nigeria


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Vipinkumar, G.Y.; Darshan, M.; Sahita I.W. To assess the prevailing Water Distribution Network using EPANET. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2015, 2(8), 777-781.
[2] Wafula, P.; Ngigi, T.; Dave, S.; Khan, A.; Kamble, Y.; Dabholkar, V.; Damle, S.; Dayana, P.M.; Adline, S.D.; Abdullah, M.; Othman, M. GIS-based analysis of supply and forecasting piped water demand in Nairobi. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Invent, 2015, 4, 1-11.
[3] Grafton, Q., Daniell, K.A., Nauges, C., Rinaudo, J.-D., Chan, N.W.W. (Eds.). Understanding and Managing Urban Water in Transition. Global Issues in Water Policy, Springer Netherlands, 2015, 15, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-9801-3. ISBN 978-94-017-9801-3
[4] Corey, J. A. B.; Barry W. B. Human population reduction is not a quick fix for environmental problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Current Issue. 2014, 111(46), 1-9.
[5] United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. Water for A Sustainable World Report: UNESCO. Paris: 2015, The United Nations World Water Development.
[6] Population Action International (PAI). Why Population Matters to water resources. Washington, DC: Population Action International, 2015
[7] United Nations Population Division. World Urbanization Prospect: The 2009 Revision. UN Population Division. United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (UNCHS). 2010, New York.
[8] United Nations Center for Human settlements. Cities in globalizing world: Global report on human settlement 2001. Routlede, 2001
[9] UN Water and FAO. Coping with water scarcity: challenge of the 21st Century United Nations Populations Fund, State of The World’s Population. 2007, UNFPA Annual Report.
[10] Shadananan, N. Challenges in Urban Water Management in A Changing Environment : Case Study From A Growing Tropical City Nansen Environmental Research Centre India. 2010, Environmental Research, 1-2.
[11] Daramola, A.; Ibem, E. O. Urban Environmental Problems in Nigeria; Implications for Sustainable Development. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 2010, 12(1), 124-145.
[12] Cordon, C.P. System Theories: An Overview of Various System Theories and Its Application in Healthcare. American Journal of Systems Science, 2013, 2(1), 13-22, DOI: 10.5923/j.ajss.20130201.03.
[13] Hart, A. Water Demand-Supply Gap Rise. Water News, 2009, Policy and Politics Circle of Blue.
[14] Closas, A.; Schuring, M.; Rodriguez, D. Integrated urban water management: lessons and recommendations from regional experiences in Latin America, Central Asia, and Africa. Water partnership program case profile. 2013, no. WPP 1.Washington, DC: The World Bank Group
[15] Wolski, P. Was the water shortage caused by farmers, city dwellers or drought. SABI Magazine-Tydskrif, 2018, 10(6), 38-39
[16] Chung, G. Water Supply System Management Design and Optimization Under Uncertainty. Phd Dissertation department of civil engineering and engineering mechanics. University of Arizona Repository, 2007, 50-62.
[17] Brinda, H. D.; Gargi, R.; Ajay, P; Manik, H. K. Continuous Water Distribution Network Analysis Using Geo-Informatics Technology and EPANET in Gandhinagar City, Gujarat State, India. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 2015, 6 (4), 1557-1560.
[18] Gwendo, G.; Rhea, G.; Nadia, B.; Qing, Z. Water distribution systems demand forecasting with pattern recognition. In Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium 2008, 1-16.
[19] Christian, K.; Katja, S.; Erik, G.; Bernd, K. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water. Water 7, 2015, no. 7, 3643-3670.
[20] Klümper, S. A. Analysis of Water Supply Projects in Practice, in Cost-Benefit Analysis and Project Appraisal in Developing Countries Colin Kirkpatrick and John Weiss (ed.). 1996 U.K: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
[21] Mensah, K. Restructuring the Delivery of Clean Water to Rural Communities in Ghana: The Institutional and Regulatory Issues. Water Policy 1998, Vol. 1, 383-395.
[22] Reddy, V. R. Quenching the Thirst: the cost of water in fragile environments. Development and Change, 1999, 30(1), 79-113.
[23] Habitat, U. N. Solid waste management in the world’s cities. Water and Sanitation in the Worlds Cities, 2010
[24] United Nations. Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World. The United Nations, New York Publication, 1996.
[25] koop, S. H.; van Leeuwen, C.J. Assessment of the sustainability of water resources management: A critical review of the city Blueprint approach. Water Resources management, 2015, 29(15), 5649-5670.
[26] Dalhuisen, J.M.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; De Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P. Price and income Elasticities of Residential Water Demand: A Meta-Analysis. Land Economics 2003, 79(2), 292-308.
[27] Grafton, R. Q.; Ward, M. B.; To, H.; Kompas, T. Determinants of Residential Water Consumption: Evidence and Analysis From A 10-Country Household Survey. Water Research Journal, 2011, 47(8), 1-12.
[28] Maidment, D. R. Developing a spatially distributed unit hydrograph by using GIS. IAHS publication, 1993, 181-181.
[29] Pidwirny, M. The Hydrologic Cycle: Fundamentals of physical Geography. Physical Geography, 2nd Edition, 2006, 50-62.
[30] McPherson, M. B. Need for metropolitan water balance inventories. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1973, 99(10), 1837-1848.
[31] McPherson, M.B.; Schneider, W.J. Problems in modeling urban watersheds. Water Resources Research, 1974, 10(3), 400- 434.
[32] Sowby, R.B. The Urban Water Cycle: Sustaining our modern Cities. National Geographic Water Currents, Available online: http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2014/03/19/the-urban-water-cyclesustaining-our-modern-cities/2014 (accessed on 14 March 2016).
[33] Loucks, D. P.; Van Beek, E.; Stedinger, J. R.; Dijkman, J. P.; Villars, M. T. Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: an Introduction to Methods, Models and Applications, 2005. Paris: Unesco.
[34] Oruonye, E. D.; Abbas, B. The Geography of Taraba State, Nigeria. 2011 LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.
[35] Oruonye, E.D; Ahmed, Y.M. An Appraisal of the Challenges of Taraba State Agricultural Development Programme (TADP) in Nigeria. Agricultural Science Research Journal, 2016, 6(10), 263-268.
[36] TADP. Taraba State Agricultural Development programme, 2004-2005 Cropped Area and Yield Survey (CAYS) Report. Jalingo: 2006, Taraba State Agricultural Development programme.
[37] Müllerová, J. Use of digital aerial photography for sub-alpine vegetation mapping: A case study from the Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic. Plant Ecology, 2005, 175(2), 259-272.
[38] Guo, L.; Chehata, N.; Mallet, C.; Boukir, S. Relevance of airborne lidar and multispectral image data for urban scene classification using Random Forests. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2015, 66(1), 56-66.
[39] Adepoju, M. O. Land use and land cover change detection with remote sensing and GIS at metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria (1984-2002). 2007, Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester (United Kingdom).
[40] Ade, M. A.; Afolabi, Y. D. Monitoring urban sprawl in the federal capital territory of Nigeria using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 2013, 6(1), 82-95.
[41] Chatterjee, S.; Hadi, A. S. Regression analysis by example. 2015, John Wiley & Sons.
[42] Allen, D.W. GIS tutorial 2: spatial analysis workbook. 2016, Esri press.
[43] Ibitoye, M. O. A GIS-Based Assessment of Potable Water Network Distribution in Osogbo, Nigeria. Ife Research Publications in Geography, 2017, 14(1), 17-29.
[44] Oumar, S.B.; Tewari, D.D. The Evolution of Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation Coverage in Urban Centers of Selected African Countries. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2013, 4(6), 747-757.
[45] Akkoyunlu, S. The potential of rural urban linkages for sustainable development and trade. International journal of sustainable development & world policy, 2015, 4(2), 20-40.
[46] United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. Water for a Sustainable World Report: UNESCO. Paris: 2015, The United Nations World Water Development.
[47] Grafton, R. Q.; Ward, M. B.; To, H.; Kompas, T. Determinants of Residential Water Consumption: Evidence and Analysis from a 10-Country Household Survey. Water Research Journal, 2011, 47(8), 1-12.

Related Articles