Environment, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Jun  2019, Pages 21-30; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2019.31002 10.31058/j.envi.2019.31002

Social Class Disparity and Sustainability Propensity of Sacred Forests in Biodiversity  Conservation in South Southern Niger Delta, Nigeria.

, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Jun  2019, Pages 21-30.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2019.31002

Koko Sunday Daniel 1* , Emem Bassey Inyang 2

1 Department of Forestry and Natural Environmental Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2 Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo. Uyo, Nigeria

Received: 5 December 2019; Accepted: 8 December 2019; Published: 20 December 2019

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 288 | Download 173


This paper assessed the disparity in valuation of the functions of the sacred forests in South Southern Niger Delta of Nigeria based on socio economics of the respondents. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 30 respondents resident in the host communities of the studied sacred forest using lottery method without replacement. 14 items which reflected the perceived socioeconomic values of the scared forests drawn from the Participatory Rural Approach technique (PRA) made up the survey tools used in the study. Composite Index (CI) analytical technique was employed in evaluating the magnitude of incidences and value appreciation across the population hence the survival propensity of the sacred forests. The result indicates that significant differences existed in relationship between perceived values and all the socioeconomic variables considered. Youths (< 30 years), females, singles and smaller household respondents all had the least perceived value for the sacred forests. Respondents with no formal education had a higher value index for the sacred forests. Also majority (59.5%) of the respondents agreed that these sites had little or no value since they had no equitable access to the resources. The study recommend a shift in perception about the cultural roles of the scared forests to the actual benefits where all and sundry can appreciate without feeling alienated because of the social status.


Sacred Forests, Biodiversity, Social Status, Wellbeing, Values


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board. Living Beyond Our Means: Natural Assets and Human Well-being. Statement from the Board. United Nations Programme, 2005; pp. 24.

[2] Metcalfe. K.; Ffrench-Constant, R.; Gordon, I. Sacred Sites as Hotspots for Biodiversity: The Three Sisters Cave Complex in Coastal Kenya. Oryx, 2010, 44 (1), 118-123.

[3] Onyekwelu, J.C.; Olusola, J.A. Role of Sacred Grove in In-Situ Biodiversity Conservation in Rainforest Zone of South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2014, 26(1), 5-15.

[4] Daniel, K.S.; Udeagha, A.U.; Jacob, D.E. Socio Cultural Importance of Sacred Forests Conservation in South Sothern Nigeria. African Journal of Sustainable Development, 2016, 6 (2), 251-268.

[5] Adebisi, L.A. Biodiversity Conservation and Ethnobotany of Selected Sacred Groves in Osun State, Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 1999.

[6] Wang, Z.; Chen, M. The kingdom of Animals: Nature Conservation of Yunnan. Journal of Yunnan Forest, 2004, 15, 112-123.

[7] Shengji, P. Biodiversity in the Sacred Forests of Xishuangbanna Biosphere Reserve, China. In International Symposium on Conserving Cultural and Biological Diversity: The role of sacred Natural Sites and Cultural Landscapes, United Nations University Tokyo, Japan, 30th May-2nd June 2005, pp. 187-193.

[8] Telly, E.M. Sacred Groves, Rituals and Sustainable Community Development in Ghana. In International Symposium on Conserving Cultural and Biological Diversity: The Role of Sacred Natural Sites and Cultural Landscapes United Nations University Tokyo, Japan, 30th May-2nd June 2005, 194-203.

[9] Ylhaisi, J. Traditionally Protected Forests and Sacred Forests of Zigua and Gweno Ethnic Groups in Tanzania. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Finland, 2006.

[10] Daniel, K.S.; Jacob, D.E.; Udeagha, A.U. Tree Composition in Selected Sacred Forest in South Eastern, Nigeria. International Journal of Molecular Ecology and Conservation, 2015, 5(7), 1-10.

[11] Daniel, K.S.; Akachuku, C.O.; Olajide, O.O. Communal Disposition to the Values of Sacred Groves in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Forestry, Environment and Sustainable Development, 2016, 2(2), 58-68.

[12] Narayan, D.; Patel, R.; Schafft, K.; Rademacher, A.; Koch Schulte, S. Voices of the Poor- Can Anyone Hear Us? World Bank Group, Oxford University Press Inc.: New York N. Y. 10016. USA. 2000; pp. 343, ISBN: 0 –19 –521601 –6.

[13] Thompson, I.; Patterson, G.; Leiner, S.; Nasi, R.; de P Pola, C. N. Review of the Status and Trends of, and Major Threats to the Forest Biological Diversity. Technical Series No. 7. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada, 2002; pp. 164.

[14] Nellemann, C.; Corcoran, E. Dead Planet, Living Planet – Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development: A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environmental Program: Chatelaine, Switzerland, 2010; pp. 112, ISBN: 9788277010830

[15] Sauder, Michael; Lynn, Freda; Podolny, Joel. Status: Insights from Organizational Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 2012, 38, 267-283.

[16] Anderson, C.; Hildreth, J.; Howland, L. Is the Desire for Status a Fundamental Human Motive? A Review of the Empirical Literature. Psychological Bulletin, 2015, 141 (3), 574-601.

[17] Ushie, E.M. Influence of Poverty on Forest / Forest Management Policies of Cross River National Park, Akamkpa. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2005, 4 (2), 177-180.

[18] Simandan, D. Rethinking the Health Consequences of Social Class and Social Mobility. Social Science & Medicine, 2018, 200, 258-261.

[19] Oyebo, M.; Bisong, F.E.; Morankinyo, T. A Preliminary Assessment of the Context for REDD in Nigeria. Federal Republic of Nigeria and Cross River State; 2011, pp. 167.

[20] Angelsen, A.; Larsen, H.O.; Lund, J.F., Smith-Hall, C.; Wunder, S. Measuring Livelihood and Environmental Dependence: Method for Research and Fieldwork. Earthscan, London, UK, 2011; pp. 1-264.

[21] Bernard, H.R. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 5th ed.; AltaMira Press: Lanham, MD. USA. 2011

[22] Kerlinger, F. N.; H. B. Lee (2000) Foundations of Behavioral Research. 4th ed., Holt, Rinehart and Winston: London, UK. 2000; pp. 962.

[23] Inyang, E. B., Eka, I. E., Udoma, G. M.; Okon, D. Attitudinal Dispositions and Sustainable Management Likelihood of Degrading Wetland Forest Resources in a Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. In Human Dimensions of Family and Farm Forestry International Symposium, Proceedings of Washington State University Extension. Pullman, Washington, USA. March 29–April 1, 2004. Baumgartner, David M; Ed.; pp. 305-309.

[24] Inyang, E.B. Evaluation of Preparedness of the Field Extension Staff of AKADEP in the Implementation of HIV and AIDS Agriculture Intervention Package. Research report in the International Centre for Educational Evaluation University of Ibadan, 2005, pp. 120.

[25] Akpabio, I.A.; Daniel, K.S. Gender Perception on Constraints Affecting Agroforestry Practices in Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria. Journal of Research in Agriculture, 2008, 5 (3), 40-45.

[26] Akpabio, I.A.; Ibok, I.P. Agroforestry practices among male and female farmer in south-south, Nigeria. Small Scale Forestry, 2009, 8, 63-76.

[27] Udo, E.A. Who Are the Ibibio? Africana-Fep. Publishers Ltd. Onitsha, Nigeria, 1983; pp. 372. ISBN 978 175 087 1.

[28] Adekunle M.F.; Sam-wobo, S.O. Ethnobotany and Prioritization of Forest Plant Used in Traditional Treatment of Guinea Worm (Dracunculus Medinensis Linn) Infections in Ogun State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Forestry, 2004, 3(1-2), 71-80.

[29] Leakey, R.R.B.; Tchoundeji, Z.; Schreckenberg, K.; Shackleton, S.E.; Shackleton, C.M. Agroforestry Tree Products (ATPs): Targeting Poverty Reduction and Enhance Livelihood. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 2005, 3(1), 1-23.

[30] Adekunle, M.F.; Ojo, L.O.; Oluwalana, S.A. Environmental Resources Utilization: A Case Study of Plant in Traditional Health Care. International Journal of Forestry Management, 2002, 3(1-2), 19-24.

Related Articles