Advancements in Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 5, Oct  2018, Pages 89-99; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Nuclear Technique (PAT) Challenge (XRD & HV) Techniques for Probing Properties of Material Science (Aluminum Alloy)

, Vol. 2, Issue 5, Oct  2018, Pages 89-99.

DOI: 10.31058/

Emad A. Badawi 1* , M. A. Abdel-Rahman 1 , S. A. Aly 1 , H. Ibrahim 1 , M. Abdel-Rahman 1

1 Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Egypt

Received: 15 August 2018; Accepted: 28 October 2018; Published: 3 December 2018

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 33 | Download 20


This work aims to study the effect of deformation on the natural aging of the heat treatable 6063Al-alloy. The influence of deformation on the aged samples was established by studying the aging behavior of 3 different aged samples; one non-deformed sample, and two samples deformed at 5% and 30% degree of deformation. This study was performed using the positron annihilation technique (PAT) as non-destructive nuclear technique, which clearly distinguished and described the aging behavior at different degrees of deformation. The effect of deformation on the natural aged 6063 Al-alloy samples was also studied by Vickers micro-hardness test. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements and analysis using Materials Analysis Using Diffraction (MAUD) program helped in detecting the crystallite size, micro-strain, lattice parameter, and dislocation density as a function of the natural aging time for the three different samples.


Positron Annihilation Lifetime, 6063 Al Alloy, XRD, MAUD Program, Crystallite Size, Micro-Strain, Lattice Parameter, Dislocation Density, Natural Aging, Deformation, Heat Treatable Alloys


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Kuijpers NCW; Kool WH, Koenis PTG; Nilsen KE; Todd I; Van der Zwaag S. Assessment of different techniques for quantification of α-Al (FeMn) Si and β-AlFeSi intermetallics in AA 6xxx alloys. Materials Characterization, 2002, 49(5), 409-420.
[2] Polmear IJ. Light alloys-Metallurgy of the light metals//((Book)). London and New York, Edward Arnold, 1989, 288. 1989.
[3] Zajac S; Bengtsson B; Jonsson Ch. Influence of cooling after homogenization and reheating to extrusion on extrudability and final properties of AA 6063 and AA 6082 alloys. Materials Science Forum, 2002, 396-402:399-404.
[4] Meredith MW; Worth J; Hamerton R. Intermetallic phase selection during solidification of Al-Fe-Si (-Mg) alloys. Materials Science Forum, 2002, 396, 107-112.
[5] Warmuzek M; Sieniawski J; Gazda A; Mrówka G. Analysis of phase formation in AlFeMnSi alloy with variable content of Fe and Mn transition elements. Materials Engineering, 2003, 137, 821-4.
[6] Milkereit B; Giersberg L; Kessler O; Schick C. Isothermal time-temperature-precipitation diagram for an aluminum alloy 6005A by in situ DSC experiments. Materials, 2014, 28, 7(4), 2631-49.
[7] Abdel-Rahman M.; Salah Mohammed; Ibrahim Alaa M.; Badawi Emad A. Comparative techniques to investigate plastically deformed 5754 Al-alloy. Modern Physics Letter B, 2017, 31(28), 1750255-8
[8] Mostafa KM; Baerdemaeker JD; Calvillo PR; Caenegem NV; Houbaert Y; Segers D. A study of defects in iron based alloys by positron annihilation techniques. Acta Physica Polonica-Series A General Physics, 2008, 113(5), 1471-8.
[9] Marcinkowski MJ; Szirmae A; Fisher R. Effect of 500 Degrees C Aging on Deformation Behavior of Iron-Chromium Alloy. Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, 1964, 230(4), 676.
[10] Shekhter A; Aaronson HI; Miller MR; Ringer SP; Pereloma EV. Effect of aging and deformation on the microstructure and properties of Fe-Ni-Ti maraging steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2004, 35(3), 973-83.
[11] Raeder CH; Felton LE; Tanzi VA; Knorr DB. The effect of aging on microstructure, room temperature deformation, and fracture of Sn-Bi/Cu solder joints. Journal of Electronic Materials, 1994, 23(7), 611-7.
[12] Dupasquier A; Mills Jr AP, editors. Positron spectroscopy of solids. IOS press; 1995.
[13] Herrmann K, editor. Hardness testing: principles and applications. ASM International; 2011.
[14] Kaneko K; Hata T; Tokunaga T; Horita Z. Fabrication and characterization of supersaturated Al-Mg alloys by severe plastic deformation and their mechanical properties. Materials transactions, 2009, 50(1), 76-81.
[15] Krause-Rehberg R; Leipner HS. Positron annihilation in semiconductors: defect studies. Springer Science & Business Media; 1999.
[16] Tuomisto F; Ranki V; Saarinen K; Look DC. Evidence of the Zn vacancy acting as the dominant acceptor in n-type ZnO. Physical Review Letters, 2003, 91(20), 205502.
[17] Dutta S; Chakrabarti M; Chattopadhyay S; Jana D; Sanyal D; Sarkar A. Defect dynamics in annealed ZnO by positron annihilation spectroscopy. Journal of applied physics, 2005, 98(5), 053513.
[18] Chakrabarti M; Bhowmick D; Sarkar A; Chattopadhyay S; Dechoudhury S; Sanyal D; Chakrabarti A. Doppler broadening measurements of the electron-positron annihilation radiation in nanocrystalline ZrO2. Journal of materials science. 2005, 40(19), 5265-8.
[19] Kirkegaard P; Eldrup M; Mogensen OE; Pedersen NJ. Program system for analysing positron lifetime spectra and angular correlation curves. Computer Physics Communications, 1981, 23(3), 307-35.
[20] Chandler H, editor. Hardness testing. ASM international; 1999.
[21] Lutterotti L; Bortolotti M; Ischia G; Lonardelli I; Wenk HR. Rietveld texture analysis from diffraction images. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 2007, 26, 125-30.
[22] Chanda A, De M. X-ray characterization of the microstructure of α-CuTi alloys by Rietveld’s method. Journal of alloys and compounds, 2000, 313(1-2), 104-14.
[23] Pal H; Chanda A; De M. Characterisation of microstructure of isothermal martensite in Fe–23Ni–3.8 Mn by Rietveld method. Journal of alloys and compounds, 1998, 278(1-2), 209-15.
[24] Sahu P; De M; Kajiwara S. Microstructural characterization of stress-induced martensites evolved at low temperature in deformed powders of Fe–Mn–C alloys by the Rietveld method. Journal of alloys and compounds, 2002, 346(1-2), 158-69.
[25] Sahu P; Hamada AS; Ghosh RN; Karjalainen LP. X-ray Diffraction Study on Cooling-Rate-Induced γ fcc→ ε hcp Martensitic Transformation in Cast-Homogenized Fe-26Mn-0.14 C Austenitic Steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2007, 38(9), 1991-2000.
[26] Sahu P, De M. Microstructural characterization of Fe–Mn–C martensites athermally transformed at low temperature by Rietveld method. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2002, 333(1-2), 10-23.

Related Articles