Management, Vol. 2, Issue 3, Jun  2018, Pages 103-116; DOI: 10.31058/j.mana.2018.23009 10.31058/j.mana.2018.23009

Determinants of Bushmeat Traders’ Income in Itu, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Management, Vol. 2, Issue 3, Jun  2018, Pages 103-116.

DOI: 10.31058/j.mana.2018.23009

Daniel Etim Jacob 1* , Eteakamba Ukpong 1 , Ubong Abraham Umoh 1 , Imaoong Ufot Nelson 1

1 Department of forestry and Natural Environmental Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Received: 24 July 2018; Accepted: 30 August 2018; Published: 24 October 2018

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 249 | Download 149


This study assessed the factors affecting bushmeat trade in Itu, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data was obtained through detailed structured questionnaires was randomly administered to 150 respondents from 10 communities randomly selected. Descriptive statistics and econometric model were employed to analyze the data collected. The results obtained indicated that majority of the respondents were male (54.93%), married (76.76%), aged between 21-40 years (80.99%) and literate (68.31%). Cross River State was the major (38.73%) single source of bushmeat for the traders. Only six species of bushmeat were traded in the area and grasscutter was the most demanded and supplied bushmeat species. Majority (37.33%) of the traders earned between ₦15,100 - ₦20,000 income monthly. Gender, age, educational status, species traded and sources of bushmeat traded were positive and significant factors (p<0.01) that affected the income of the traders. The study recommends more investment and development in the rural areas as this further help in reducing dependence and trade in the wildlife resources thereby conserving it for posterity.


Bushmeat Trade, Livelihood Income, Households, Conservation, Nigeria


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Clayton, L.M. The trade in wild pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecol. Econ. 2002, 42, 165-183.
[2] Nasi, R.; Brown, D.; Wilkie, D.; Bennett, E.; Tutin, C.; van Tol, G.; Christophersen, T. Conservation and use of wildlife-based resources: the bushmeat crisis. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, and Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor. Technical Series no. 33, 2008; 50
[3] Schulte-Herbrüggen, B.; G. Cowlishaw, K.; Homewood, J. M. Rowcliffe. The Importance of Bushmeat in the Livelihoods of West African Cash-Crop Farmers Living in a Faunally-Depleted Landscape. PLoS One, 2013, 8(8): e72807.
[4] Friant, S.; Paige, S.B.; Goldberg, T.L. Drivers of Bushmeat Hunting and Perceptions of Zoonoses in Nigerian Hunting Communities. PLoSNegl Trop Dis, 2015, 9(5): e0003792.
[5] Bode, S. A. Conservation of wildlife resources in relation to sustainable rural development in neighboring communities of Kainji Lake National Park, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Yola, 2006; 95.
[6] Daniel, K.S.Y.; Udeagha, A. Umazi and Jacob, D. E. Socio- Cultural Importance of Sacred Forests Conservation in South Southern Nigeria. African Journal of Sustainable Development, 2016, 6 (2), 151-162.
[7] Jacob, D.E., Udeagha A.U.; Nelson, I.U. Poverty Incidence among Rural Households in Ikot Ondo Community, Nigeria. Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 2016, 2(5), 80-88.
[8] Eniang, E.A.M. E. Eniang.; C.E. Akpan. Bushmeat Trading in the Oban Hills Region of South-Eastern Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Livelihoods and Conservation. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 2008, 1, 70-83.
[9] Neumann, R.P.; Hirsch, E. Commercialization of non-timber forest products: Review and analysis of research. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, 2000; 187
[10] Udo, E. S. Forest biodiversity conservation in Nigeria through community forestry. In: Obiaga, P.C., Abu, J.E., Popoola, L. and Ujor, G.(eds.). Conservation of Nigeria’s natural resources and the threatened environment. FAN conference, Ibadan, 1999, 191-199.
[11] Roe, D. Linking biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation: A state of knowledge review. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010.
[12] ESPA. Ecosystems Services and Poverty Alleviation Programme, 2010. Available online: (accessed 12th February, 2017).
[13] Gally, M.; Jeanmart, P. Etude de la chase vellageoisenforet Dense Humide de Afrique central. Travail de Fin Detuded. Faculte Universitaire de Science Agronomique Gemblox, 1996.
[14] Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. Wildlife and Food Security in Africa. FAO Conservation Guide No 0259-2452; 33, Food and Agriculture Organization, 1997; 109.
[15] Bennett, R.J.; Robinson, S.L. Development of a Measure of Workplace Deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2000; 85(3), 349-360.
[16] Fa, J. E.; Peres, C. A.; Meeuwig, J. Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: An intercontinental comparison. Conserv. Biol, 2002, 16, 232-237.
[17] Peres, C. A.; Palacios, E. Basin-wide effects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Amazonian forests: Implications for animal-mediated seed dispersal. Biotropica, 2007, 39, 304-315.
[18] Corlett, R. T. The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna of tropical Asian forests. Biotropica, 2007, 39, 292-303.
[19] Bowen-Jones, E.; Brown, D.; Robinson, E. Assessment of the solution-orientated research needed to promote a more sustainable bushmeat trade in Central and West Africa. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2002.
[20] Dei, G. J. S. Hunting and gathering in a Ghanaian Rain Forest Community. Ecol Food Nutr. 1989; 22: 225-243.
[21] Nelson, I. U. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Ornamental Plant Production and Marketing in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis. University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria. 2015, 148.
[22] Fa, J. E. Bushmeat markets – white elephants or red herrings? In: Davies, G. and Brown, D. (eds) Bushmeat and livelihoods: wildlife management and poverty reduction. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2007; 47-6.
[23] Solly, H. Bushmeat Hunters and Secondary Traders: Making the Distinction for Livelihood Improvement. Wildlife Policy Briefing No. 8, 2004.
[24] Mendelson, S.; G. Cowlishaw.; J.M. Rowcliffe. Anatomy of a Bushmeat Commodity Chain in Takoradi, Ghana. Journal of Peasant Studies, 2003, 31(1), 73-100.
[25] Bisong, F. E. Etara/Ekuri-Eyeyeng Community Landuse Plan. DFID–CRS Community Forestry Project–CRS Forestry Commission, Calabar, 2001.
[26] Jacob, D. E.; Udoakpan U. I.; Nelson, I. U. Issues in Conflict Resolution in Cross River National Park, Southeastern Nigeria. 1st International Conference on Environmental Crisis and its Solution. Scientific and Research Branch, Khouzeslan, Islamic Azad University, Kish Island, Iran, 2013; 13th-14th February. 76-82.
[27] Jacob, D. E.; Nelson, I. U. A Survey of Sclater’s Guenon in Ikot Uso Akpan Community Forest, Itu, Nigeria, Intl. J. of Mol. Ecol. and Conserv, 2015, 5(2), 32-38, DOI: 10.5376/ijmec.2015.05.0002.
[28] Imeh, N, J.; Adebobola, H. The Effects of Poverty in the Conservation of Biodiversity: The Nigerian Experience. Science in Africa.On-line magazine, 2005.
[29] Gichuki, N. N. The Contribution of Indigenous Knowledge to Bird Conservation. In: Adams, N.J. and Slotow, R.H. (eds) Proc. 22 Int. Ornithol. Congr., Durban, South Africa, 1999.
[30] Luisigi, W. J. New approaches to wildlife conservation in Kenya. Ambio, 1984; 10(2/3), 87-92.
[31] Ntagazwa, A. Welcome Address Presented by the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources, and Tourism at the Workshop on Protected Area Management in Africa, Mweka, Tanzania, 1992.
[32] Kümpel, N. F.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Cowlishaw, G.; Rowcliffe, J. M. Incentives for hunting: The role of bushmeat in the household economy in rural Equatorial Guinea. Hum Ecol, 2010, 38, 251-264.
[33] Reardon, T. Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa. World Dev. 1997, 25, 735-747.
[34] Jacob, D. E. Resource Governance Structure in selected Nigeria National Parks and Impact on Rural Livelihood. Ph.D Thesis submitted to Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2017, 245.
[35] Njoku, Z.C. Linkages Between Some Economic Activities of Women and Environmental Sustainability: Implications for Science Education of Females. In Proceedings of African Regional GASAT Conference Africa GASAT, Abuja, 2000, 157-160.
[36] Okiwelu, S. N., N. Ewurum.; M. A. E. Noutcha. Wildlife harvesting and bushmeat trade in Rivers State, Nigeria: Species composition, seasonal abundance and cost. Scientia Africana, 2009, 8 (2), 1-8.
[37] Olupot, W. A variable edge effect on trees of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, and its bearing on measurement parameters, Biol. Conserv, 2009, 142, 789-797.
[38] Oates, J. A survey of primates and other forest wildlife in Anambra, Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria. Report to National Geographic Society (USA), Nigerian Conservation Foundation, Nigerian Federal Department of Forestry, and Governments of Anambra, Imo and Rivers States, 1989.
[39] Jacob, D. E.; Nelson, I. U. A Survey of Sclater’s Guenon in Ikot Uso Akpan Community Forest, Itu, Nigeria, Intl. J. of Mol. Ecol. and Conserv, 2015, 5(2): 32-38, DOI: 10.5376/ijmec.2015.05.0002.
[40] Happold, D. C. D. The Mammals of Nigeria. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1987; 402; ISBN 0-19-857565-3.
[41] Kuchikura, Y. Efficiency and Focus of Blowpipe Hunting among Semaq Beri Hunter-Gatherers of Peninsular Malaysia. Human Ecology, 1988, 16(3), 271–305.
[42] Ayodele, I. A.; Ebin, C. O.; Alarape, A. A. Essential of Wildlife Management. 2nd ed. Jachin publishers, Ibadan, 1999; 46-51.
[43] Schulte-Herbrüggen, B. The importance of bushmeat in the livelihoods of cocoa farmers living in a wildlife depleted farm-forest landscape, SW Ghana [PhD thesis]. UK: University College; London, 2011. Available online: (accessed on 5 April 2018).
[44] Adefalu, L.L.; Oladipo, F.O.; Usman, B.A.; Babalola, F.D.; Amusa, T.O.; Egere, S. Rural Women Perception on Bushmeat Trade around Kainji Lake National Park, Niger State, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 2012, 5 (1), 20-25.
[45] Julian, T. A.; R.A. Kominski. Education and Synthetic Work Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports, ACS-14.U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, 2011.
[46] Brashares, J. S.; C. D. Golden, K. Z.; Weinbaum, C. B. Barrett.; G. V. Okello. Economic and geographic drivers of wildlife consumption in rural Africa. PNAS108, 2011, (34), 13931-13936.
[47] Häuser, M.; Ankila, O. Solar Drying in Morocco - Experience with Solar Drying in Marocco from the GTZ Special Energy Programme (SEP); Overview on Technologies, Drying Techniques, and Economics. 1997, 27.
[48] INNOTECH. Process Technology: Efficient and Effective Conservation of Fruits, Vegatables, Herbs Medicinal Plants and Spices, 2014. Available online: (accessed 27 September, 2014).
[49] Jacob, D. E. Population and Habitat assessment of Sclater’s guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri, Pocock 1904) in Ikot Uso Akpan Community Forest, Itu L.G.A., Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. M.Sc Dissertation submitted to University of Uyo, Nigeria, 2012, 167.