Health Research, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Jun  2018, Pages 24-33; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Schistosoma Haematobium and Klebsiella Pneumoniae Co-Infections, Antibiotic Susceptibility and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index in School Children in Zaria, Nigeria

, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Jun  2018, Pages 24-33.

DOI: 10.31058/

Henry Gabriel Bishop 1* , John Musa Ahmadu 1

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Received: 20 July 2018; Accepted: 15 September 2018; Published: 24 October 2018

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Urinary schistosomiasis in concomitant bacteriuria is a problem in many African countries. Antibiotic susceptibility and multiple antibiotic resistances (MAR) index are important in drug selection. A total of 170 school children in Zaria were involved in the study. Urine sample (10mls) was collected from each participant and a questionnaire was administered. The samples were cultured on MacConkey agar plates. Pure cultures were subjected to Gram staining, biochemical characterization and antibiotic susceptibility testing. For detection of Schistosoma haematobium, the urine samples were centrifuged at 3000 revolutions per minute for 5 minutes. The sediments were examined as wet mounts with drops of Lugol’s iodine using 10x and 40x objectives of the light microscope. Results were subjected to Chi Square and Odd Ratio analyses on IBM SPSS version 21. Overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 22(12.9%), while Klebsiella pneumoniae was 16(9.4%). Co-infections of the two organisms were 4(2.4%). Male children were significantly more infected with Schistosoma haematobium (19.6%, p=0.003, OR =5.684) than the females 3(4.1%). Also the male children had more infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae than the females, and all co-infections were found among the males. Children in secondary schools and those between 22-24 years of age had more infections with Schistosoma haematobium and Klebsiella pneumoniae than those in primary schools and of age 5-6 years. Identified risk factors for urinary schistosomiasis in this study were swimming in river/streams, washing in dams, use of stream as main source of water and fishing. Those with co-infections were more at risk of developing abdominal pain (P=0.004, OR=13.6). Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to: Oflaxacin (87.5%), Gentamicin (68.75%), Ciprofloxacin (62.5%), Streptomycin (62.5%), and Septrin (56.25%); and resistant to Nalidixic acid 8(50%), Ampicillin (43.75%) and Cephalexin (37.5%). The four isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in concomitant urinary schistosomiasis had very high MAR indices of 0.7, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.0 respectively.


Schistosoma haematobium; Klebsiella pneumoniae; urine; co-infections; antibiotic susceptibility; children; Zaria; Nigeria


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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