Advancements in Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 1-16; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide (TBAB) Modified Cameroonian Local Clay Material for Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution

Advancements in Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 1-16.

DOI: 10.31058/

Constant Tcheka 1* , Raluca Pleşa Chicinaş 2 , Andrada Măicăneanu 3 , Patrick Nkuigue Fotsing 4 , Hamou Moussout 5 , Richard Domga 6

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

3 Department of Chemistry, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA

4 Department of inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

5 Laboratory of Chemistry/Biology Applied to the Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, Meknes, Morocco

6 Department of Applied Chemistry, Ensai, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

Received: 22 December 2017; Accepted: 10 January 2018; Published: 2 February 2018

Download PDF | Views 1072 | Download 643


The present paper reports the preparation and characterization of tetra-n-butylammonium bromide modified local clay material (TBAB-Clay) and its application as potential adsorbent material for Crystal Violet dye removal from aqueous solution. Major mineral phases, identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), were illite and kaolinite, in addition to quartz and calcite as impurities. Characterization of the material was supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The kinetics of the adsorption process was studied using two models: pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. Experimental data were best fitted with pseudo-second-order model. Three isotherm models namely Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were used to describe the adsorption process. The inclusion of non-linear regression analysis suggested the Langmuir model best described the adsorption process. The Langmuir isotherm predicted the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 115.54 mg g-1 while the D-R isotherm suggested a physisorption process with a free energy value of 0.708 kJ mol-1. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this modified clay material is a promising adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solution.


Clay Minerals, Illite, Kaolinite, TBAB-Clay, Crystal Violet Dye, Adsorption Equilibrium, Kinetic Studies


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Güzel F, Say H, Akkaya G, et al. Elimination of anionic dye by using nanoporous carbon prepared from an industrial biowaste. J. Mol. Liq. 2014; 194:130–140.

[2] Ramesh KSBST. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents : a review. Appl Water Sci. 2013; 3:773–790.

[3] Verma Y. Toxicity Evaluation of Effluents from Dye and Dye Intermediate Producing Industries Using Daphnia Bioassay. Internet J. Toxicol. 2007; 4:1–7.

[4] Pengthamkeerati P, Satapanajaru T, Singchan O. Sorption of reactive dye from aqueous solution on biomass fly ash. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008; 153:1149–1156.

[5] Santos SCR, Boaventura RAR. Adsorption of cationic and anionic azo dyes on sepiolite clay : Equilibrium and kinetic studies in batch mode. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2016; 4:1473–1483.

[6] Dahri MK. Water remediation using low cost adsorbent walnut shell for removal of malachite green : Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamic and regeneration studies. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2014; 2:1434–1444.

[7] Gupta VK. Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal – A review. J. Environ. Manage. 2009; 90:2313–2342.

[8] Kooli F, Liu Y, Al-faze R, et al. Applied Clay Science Effect of acid activation of Saudi local clay mineral on removal properties of basic blue 41 from an aqueous solution. Appl. Clay Sci. 2015; 116–117:23–30. Available from: h.

[9] Duta A, Visa M. Simultaneous removal of two industrial dyes by adsorption and photocatalysis on a fly-ash –TiO2 composite. Journal Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 2015; 306:21–30.

[10] Hussein FH, Halbus AF, Lafta AJ, et al. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Iraqi Khestawy Date Palm. J. Chem. 2015; 1–8.

[11] Rahman A, Urabe T, Kishimoto N. Color removal of reactive procion dyes by clay adsorbents. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2013; 17:270–278.

[12] Saygılı Hasan GF. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon from tomato processing solid waste by zinc chloride activation : process optimization, characterization and dyes adsorption. J. Clean. Prod. 2016; 113:995–1004.

[13] Visa M, Bogatu C, Duta A. Tungsten oxide – fly ash oxide composites in adsorption and photocatalysis. J. Hazard. Mater. 2015; 286:244–256. Available from: h.

[14] Sofía Arellano-Cárdenas, Socorro López-Cortez, Maribel Cornejo-Mazón JCM-G, Departamento. Study of malachite green adsorption by organically modified clay using a batch method. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2013; 280:74–78.

[15] Auta M, Hameed BH. Modified mesoporous clay adsorbent for adsorption isotherm and kinetics of methylene blue. Chem. Eng. J. 2012; 198–199:219–227.

[16] Wang L, Wang A. Adsorption properties of Congo red from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite. 2008; 160:173–180.

[17] Xia C, Jing Y, Jia Y, et al. Adsorption properties of congo red from aqueous solution on modi fi ed hectorite : Kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Desalination. 2011; 265:81–87.

[18] Chen D, Chen J, Luan X, et al. Characterization of anion – cationic surfactants modified montmorillonite and its application for the removal of methyl orange. Chem. Eng. J. 2011; 171:1150-1158. Available from:

[19] Miyah Y, Lahrichi A, Idrissi M. Assessment of adsorption kinetics for removal potential of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solutions using Moroccan pyrophyllite. 2016;

[20] Zhu R, Chen Q, Liu H, et al. Applied Clay Science Montmorillonite as a multifunctional adsorbent can simultaneously remove crystal violet, cetyltrimethylammonium, and 2-naphthol from water. Appl. Clay Sci. [Internet]. 2014; 88–89:33–38. Available from:

[21] Gao W, Zhao S, Wu H, et al. Applied Clay Science Direct acid activation of kaolinite and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue. 2016; 126:98–106.

[22] Stawiński W, Węgrzyn A, Dańko T, et al. AC SC. ECSN. 2017; Available from:

[23] Liu Y, Kang Y, Mu B, et al. Attapulgite / bentonite interactions for methylene blue adsorption characteristics from aqueous solution. Chem. Eng. J. [Internet]. 2014; 237:403–410. Available from:

[24] Elmoubarki R, Mahjoubi FZ, Tounsadi H, et al. Adsorption of textile dyes on raw and decanted Moroccan clays : Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics. Water Resour. Ind. 2015; 9:16–29. Available from:

[25] Chinoune K, Bentaleb K, Bouberka Z, et al. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solution by dirty bentonite. Appl. Clay Sci. 2016; 123:64–75.

[26] Vlasova, M, Dominguez-Patino G., Kakazey N., Mominguez-Patino M., Juarez-Romero D. EMY. Structural-Phase Transformations in Bentonite after Acid Treatment. Sci. Sinter. 2003; 35:155–166.

[27] Hubicki Z., Zieba E. WG and RJ. FT-IR / PAS and SEM EDX Studies on Aluminosilicates Modified by Cs (I), Th (IV) and U (VI). ACTA Phys. Pol. A. 2009; 116:312–314.

[28] Catrinescu C, Arsene D, Teodosiu C. Environmental Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of para -chlorophenol over Al / Fe pillared clays (AlFePILCs) prepared from different host clays. Applied Catal. B, Environ. 2011; 101:451–460.

[29] L. Cosmin Coteţ, Andrada Măicăneanu CIF& VD. AlphA-Cypermetrin Pesticide Adsorption on Carbon Aerogel Aerogel and Xerogel. Sep. Sci. Technol. 2013; 37–41.

[30] Ho Y-S. Citation review of Lagergren kinetic rate equation on adsorption reactions. Scientometrics. 2004; 59:171–177.

[31] Ho YS, Llow GMFE. Kinetic Models for the Sorption of dye from Aqueous Solution by Wood. Trans IChemE. 1998; 76:183–191.

[32] Kumar R, Rawat V, Banerjee S, et al. Synthesis of bimetallic Fe – Zn nanoparticles and its application towards adsorptive removal of carcinogenic dye malachite green and Congo red in water. J. Mol. Liq. 2015; 212:227–236.

[33] Georgin J, Luiz G, Antonio M, et al. Preparation of activated carbon from peanut shell by conventional pyrolysis and microwave irradiation-pyrolysis to remove organic dyes from aqueous solutions. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2016; 4:266–275.

[34] Lian L, Guo L, Wang A. Use of CaCl 2 modi fi ed bentonite for removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions. Desalin. 249. 2009; 249:797–801.

[35] Langmuir I. The Adsorption of Gazes on plane surface of Glass, Mica and Platinium. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1918; 40:1361–1403.

[36] Ali W, Hussain M, Ali M, et al. Evaluation of Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherm for Potassium Adsorption Phenomena. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci. 2013; 6:1048–1054.

[37] Ahmet, çabuka, Tamer Akarb, Sibel Tunali b SG. Biosorption of Pb (II) by industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on the biomatrix of cone biomass of Pinus nigra : Equilibrium and mechanism analysis. Chem. Eng. J. 2007; 131:293–300.

[38] Reza M, Asfaram A, Hadipour A, et al. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies for removal of acid blue 129 from aqueous solution by almond shell. J. Environ. Heal. Sci. Eng. 2014; 1–7.

[39] Dada, A.O, Olalekan, A.P, Olatunya, A.M., DADA O. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin – Radushkevich Isotherms Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Zn 2 + Unto Phosphoric Acid Modified Rice Husk. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 2012; 3:38–45.

[40] Weber TW. Pore and Solid Diffusion Models for Fixed-Bed Adsorbers. AlChE J. 1974; 20:228–238.

[41] Anayurt RA, Sari A, Tuzen M. Equilibrium , thermodynamic and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb ( II ) and Cd ( II ) from aqueous solution by macrofungus ( Lactarius scrobiculatus ) biomass. Chem. Eng. J. 2009; 151:255–261.

[42] Muthukumaran C, Murugaiyan V. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies of crystal violet dye removal from aqueous solution using surfactant modified magnetic nanoadsorbent. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2016; 63:354–362.

[43] Tosun İ. Ammonium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Clinoptilolite : Determination of Isotherm and Thermodynamic Parameters and Comparison of Kinetics by the Double Exponential Model and Conventional Kinetic Models. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2012; 9:970–984.

[44] Singh M, Dosanjh HS, Singh H. Journal of Water Process Engineering Surface modified spinel cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for cationic dye removal : Kinetics and thermodynamics studies. J. Water Process Eng. [Internet]. 2016; 11:152–161. Available from:

[45] Wang W, Tian G, Wang D, et al. All-into-one strategy to synthesize mesoporous hybrid silicate microspheres from naturally rich red palygorskite clay as high- eff icient adsorbents. Nat. Publ. Gr. 2016; 1–14. Available from:

[46] Kannan C, Buvaneswari N, Palvannan T. Removal of plant poisoning dyes by adsorption on Tomato Plant Root and green carbon from aqueous solution and its recovery. DES. 2009; 249:1132–1138. Available from:

[47] Eren E. Investigation of a basic dye removal from aqueous solution onto chemically modified Unye bentonite. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009; 166:88–93.

[48] Anirudhan TS, Ramachandran M. Adsorptive removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by surfactant modified bentonite clay (organoclay): Kinetic and competitive adsorption isotherm. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. [Internet]. 2015; 95:215–225. Available from:

[49] Sharma V, Rekha P, Mohanty P. Nanoporous hypercrosslinked polyaniline : An ef fi cient adsorbent for the adsorptive removal of cationic and anionic dyes. J. Mol. Liq. 2016; 222:1091–1100. Available from:

[50] Makhoukhi B, Djab M, Didi MA. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering Adsorption of Telon dyes onto bis-imidazolium modi fi ed bentonite in aqueous solutions. Biochem. Pharmacol. [Internet]. 2015; 3:1384–1392. Available from:

Related Articles