Waters, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Sep  2018, Pages 1-15; DOI: 10.31058/j.water.2018.11001 10.31058/j.water.2018.11001

Water and Sediment Qualities Issues and Growth Performance of Pond-Cultured Oreochromis Niloticus Fed Different Dietary Protein Levels

Waters, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Sep  2018, Pages 1-15.

DOI: 10.31058/j.water.2018.11001

Thomas Kwaku Agyemang 1 , Jack Frimpong-Manso Pumpuni 1 , Godfred Owusu-Boateng 1*

1 Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Received: 18 December 2017; Accepted: 29 December 2017; Published: 19 January 2018

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 1095 | Download 657


The physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water and sediments and the growth performance of fish following administration of Oreochromis niloticus feeds of two different dietary protein levels were studied in Hapas set in four 200 m2 ponds. Results indicate that water quality parameters monitored were within environmental tolerable limits and for the growth of Oreochromis niloticus. For all the feeds, water temperature was in the range of 27.83°C - 28.67°C, dissolved oxygen 5.01mg/L - 6.11 mg/L and pH 5.4 - 7.01. The levels of biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon as well as Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp were generally beyond acceptable limits with projections of the levels of the physico-chemical parameters indicating further increase. There were no statistical significant differences (P>0.05) in the levels of total nitrogen, phosphorus, biological oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon and bacteria load before the administration of treatments and at the end of the study.


Water Quality, Nutrient, Protein, Growth, Oreochromis Niloticus


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Gandotra, R.; Kumari, R.; Parihar, D.S. Impact of Varied Dietary Protein on the Growth Performance of the Juveniles of Labeo rohita. JEB, 2015, 2(3), 652-655.

[2] Ahmad, M.H.; Abdel-Tawwab, M.; Khattab, Y. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Growth Performance and Protein Utilization in Nile Tilapia. Proceedings of The 6th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Manila, Philippine. September 12-16. 2004, 249-263.

[3] Lovel, T. Nutrition and Feeding of fish, 2nd ed.; Kluwer Academic Publishers. Boston. 1998, 267.

[4] Stone, N.; Thomforde, K. Understanding your Fish Pond Water Analysis Report. University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Program Printing Service. 2004, 34.

[5] Boyd, C.E.; Tucker, C.S. Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA. 1998, 700.

[6] Lazur, A. Growout Pond and Water Quality Management. JIFSAN. 2007, 1, 7-8.

[7] Niemirycz, E. Variability of Organic Carbon in Water and Sediments of the Odra River and Its Tributaries. Pol. J. Environ, Stud. 2006, 15(4), 557-563.

[8] Schober, J.; Lima, G.; Focken, U. Analysis of Soil Nutrients and Organic Matter in Organic and Conventional Marine Shrimp Ponds at Guaraira Lagoon, Rio Grande does Norte State, Brazil. In: Zikeli S, Claupein W, Dabbert S (eds) Beiträge zur 9. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau Zwischen Tradition und Globalisierung, Universität Hohenheim, 20.-23. März 2007; Bd. 2. Berlin: Köster. 2007, 931-934.

[9] Boyd, C.E.; Wood, C.; Thunjai, T. Aquaculture Pond Bottom Soil Quality Management. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Corvallis, Oregon. 2002, 41 pp.

[10] Auburn University. Manual for Commercial Pond Production of the African Catfish in Uganda. Water Quality and General Pond Management. 2007, 70-96.

[11] Erondu, E.; Anynawu, P. Potential Hazards and Risks Associated with Aquaculture Industry. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2011, 4(13), 1622-1627.

[12] Nkyi, K.; Oduro, W.; Gyedu O. Effect of Collar diameter and lifting

Period on Shoot Biomass Production of Teak (Tectona grandis) Stumps. JEB. 2011, 31(3), pp. 21-29.

[13] Lawrence, A.L.; Castille, F.L.; Samocha, T.; Velasco, M. Environmentally Friendly or Least Polluting Feed and Feed Management for Aquaculture. In C.L. Browdy and D.E. Jory (eds.), The New Wave, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Culture, Aquaculture 2001, WAS, Baton Rouge. 2001, 84-95.

[14] Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition). Volume 6: Agricultural use: Aquaculture. DWAF. 1996, 15-185p.

[15] FAO. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. 2011. Available online: http://www.fao. org/ fishery/ culturedspecies/Oreochromis_niloticus/en (accessed on 26, December, 2017).

[16] Ngugi, C.C.; James, R.B.; Bethuel, O.O. A New Guide to Fish Farming in Kenya, Oregon State University, USA. 2007.

[17] Kausar, R.; Salim, M. Effect of water temperature on the growth performance and feed conversion ratio of Labeo rohita. Pak Vet J. 2006, 26, 105-108.

[18] Makori, A.J.; Abuom, P.O.; Kapiyo, R.; Anyona, D.A.; Dida, G.O. Effects of water physico-chemical parameters on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth in earthen ponds in Teso North Sub-County, Busia County. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2017, 20(30).

[19] Shaheen, F.; Kousar, R.; Raza, S.I.; Mahmood, T.; Hassan, S.W. Effects of salinity and hardness on the growth of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Northern Punjab Region of Pakistan. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, 2017, 3(1), 21-32.

[20] Rebouças V.T.; Dos Santos Lima R.F.; Cavalcante D.D.H.; Do Carmo e Sa M V. Reassessment of the suitable range of water pH for culture of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. in eutrophic water. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences. 2016, 38, 361-368.

[21] Weiner, E.R. Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry A Practical Guide Third Edition. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton. 2013, pp 588.

[22] Bryan R.; Soderberg W.; Blanchet H.; Sharpe W.E. Management of Fish Ponds in Pennsylvania. 2011. Available online: http://www.water-rresearch.net/Waterlibrary/ Lake/waterqualityponds.pdf (accessed on 27, December, 2016).

[23] Ghozlan, A.; Zaki, M.A.; Gaber, M.M.; Nour, A. Effect of Different Water Sources on Survival Rate (%) Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Fish Yield, and Economic Evaluation on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Monosex Reared in Earthen Ponds. OFOAJ. 2017, 4(4).

[24] Riche, M.; Garling, D. Fish: Feed and Nutrition. Feeding Tilapia in Intensive Recirculating Systems. (2003). Available online: http://www.hatcheryfeed.com/ hf-articles/141/ (accessed on 25, December, 2017).

[25] Ross L.L. Environmental physiology and energetic. Fish and Fisheries Series. 2002, 25, 89-128.

Available online: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94- 011-4008-9_4 (accessed on 14, September, 2013).

[26] Kim, T.N.T. Feeds, water quality, gut morphology and digestion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) PhD Thesis. Wageningen University. 2017. Available online: http://edepot.wur.nl/410628 (accessed on 26, December, 2017).

[27] Moeckel, J.L.; Lawrence, A.L.; Crockett, J.; Lingenfelter, B.A.; Patnaik, S.; Pollack, J.B. Effect of Dietary Protein on Growth and Survival of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in a Zero Water (Biofloc) Exchange System 9th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Virginia, USA. August 2012, 24 - 26, 173-210.

[28] FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013.

[29] Kureshy, N.; Davis, D.A. Protein Requirement for Maintenance and Maximum Weight Gain for the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture. 2002, 204, 125-143.

[30] Bender, J.; Lee, R.; Sheppard, M.; Brinkley, K.; Philips, P.; Yeboah, Y.; Wah, R.C. A Waste Effluent Treatment System Based on Microbial Mats for Black Sea Bass Centropristis Striata Recycled-Water Mariculture. Aquacult. Eng. 2004, 31, 73-82.

[31] MissouriDepartment of Natural Resources. Water Quality Parameters (2016). Available online: http://dnr.mo.gov/env/esp/waterquality parameters. html (accessed on 24, November , 2016).

[32] Valiela I. Marine Ecological Processes 2nd ed. Xiv. 1995, 686p. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[33] Brooks, D.B. Fresh Water in the Middle East and North Africa. In: Lipchin, C.; Pallant, E.; Saranga, D.; Amster, A. (Eds.), Integrated Water Resources Management and Security in the Middle East Dordrecht. Springer, The Netherlands. 2007, 1-29.

[34] Black, K.D. (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, UK. 2001, 214.

[35] Sey, S.E. Assessment of Bacterial Load on Spring Onions (Allium cepa) Cultivated under Vegetable-Fish Integration System. BSc. Thesis. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. 2016.

[36] Patra, S.; Loir, L.; Shelby, R. Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Water, Sludge and Fish Raised In Wastewater-fed Tropical ponds. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010, 48(4), 383-393.

[37] Douglas, I.; Isor, S.; Faith, N. Bacteriological Investigation of Pond Water Quality from Ogoniland, Nigeria. JESTFT. 2015, 9(2), 2319-2399.

[38] Ali, I. Salmonella in Fish and Fishery Products. J Appl Microbiol. 2010, 4(13), 1-6.

[39] Bisht, A.; Singh, U.; Pandey, N. Comparative Study of Seasonal Variation in Bacterial Flora Concomitant with Farm Raised Fingerlings Of Cyprinus carpio at Tarai Region of Uttarakhand. JEB, 2014, 3(12), 363-367.

[40] Choudhary, H.R.; Sharma, B.K.; Uppadhyay, B.; Sharma, S.K. Effect of different protein levels on growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 2017, 5(3), 480-484.

[41] Ribeiro R.P.; Hayashi, C.; Furuya, W.M.; Furuya, V.R.B.; Soares, C.M. Utilização de diferentes níveis de levedura seca, Saccharomyces mcerevisiae, em dietas para alevino de tilápias do nilo, Oreochomis niloticus, em cultivo monossexo. In: Simpósio Brasileiro De Aqüicultura, 9, Sete Lagoas, Resumos.. Sete Lagoas, Simbraq. 1996, 99.

[42] Ali, A.E.; Mekhamar, M.I.; Gadel-Rab, A.G.; Osman, A.G.M. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus Fed Piophila casei Maggot Meal (Magmeal) EFASA 2016 119 Diets, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, AlAzhar University, Assiut, Egypt. AJLS. 2015, 3(6-1), 24-29.

[43] Medri, V.; Medri, W.; Filho, M.C. Growth of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets with Different Levels of Proteins of Yeast. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 2009, 52(3), 721-728.

[44] Azzaza, M.S.; Dhrajef, M.N.; Krajem; M.M. Effects of Water Temperature on Growth and Sex Ratio of Juvenile Nile Tilapia: Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) Reared in Geothermal Water in Southern Tunisia. J Therm Biol. 2008, 33, 98-105.

[45] Workagegn, K.B., Ababbo, E.D.; Tossa, B.T. The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization Efficiency and Survival Rate of Juvenile Nile Tilapia. J Aquac. Res Development. 2013, 4, 1-6.

[46] Limbu, S.M.; Shoko, A.P.; Lamtane, H.A.; Kishe-Machumu, M.A.; Joram, M.C.; Mbonde, A.S.; Mgaya, Y.D. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds. Springer Plus. 2016, 5(5).

[47] Shaari, N.F.I.; Zain, R.A.M.M.; Amin, M.F.M.; Wei, L.S.; Jani, M. Effect of Azolla Supplementation on Growth Performance and Survival of Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus). Fish Aqua J. 2017, 8, 235, DOI: 10.4172/2150-3508.1000235.

[48] Mishra, J.P.; Vaithiyanathan, S.; Mishra, S.; Prasad, R.; Misra, A.K. Effect of transinoculation of subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) Leaves Fed Goat Rumen Liquor into Sheep Rumen on Haematobiochemical Parameters in Sheep. Indian J. Small Rumin. 2002, 8(1), 19-22.

[49] Workagegn, K.B.; Ababboa, E.D.; Yimer, G.T.; Amare, T.A. Growth Performance of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Fed Different Types of Diets Formulated from Varieties of Feed Ingredients. J Aquac Res Development, 2014, 5, 235.

Related Articles