Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 39-61; DOI: 10.31058/j.bs.2017.11004 10.31058/j.bs.2017.11004

Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance, Digestibility and Nutrient Retention in Fingerlings of Indian Major Carps-Effect on Nitrogen Retention and   Excretion of Metabolites

Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 39-61.

DOI: 10.31058/j.bs.2017.11004

Sudhir Krishan Garg 1* , Alok Kalla 2

1 Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, Laboratory of Fish Physiology and Aquaculture Management, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar, India

2 Department of Fisheries College of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry Fiji National University, Nausori, Fiji

Received: 4 December 2017; Accepted: 15 December 2017; Published: 10 January 2018

Download PDF | Views 339 | Download 203

Abstract

Studies were conducted to determine the effects of feeding frequency on growth performance and some bioenergetic parameters on fingerlings of Indian major carps.  First experiment was conducted on the fingerlings of Cirrhinus mrigala (Mean body weight 4.30±0.050g) under laboratory conditions.  Four feeding frequency groups were set up: feeding once (T1), twice (T2), thrice (T3) and four (T4) times d-1. At the end of 75 days, higher mean body weight (4.4±0.22g), specific growth rate (0.95 ± 0.0g) and nutrient retention (GPR=30.85 ± 1.77 and GER=26.06 ± 1.17) were observed in treatment T4 which were significantly (P<0.05) higher than T1 but  not significantly (P<0.05) different from  T2 and T3. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained significantly (P<0.05) higher in fingerlings fed once a day as compared to other treatments. Carcass protein and fat were significantly (P

Keywords

Mrigal, Feeding Frequency, Growth Performance, Feed Conversion Ratio, Carcass Composition, Excretion of Metabolites, Water Quality, Pond Productivity

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

[1] Alanärä A.; Kadri S.; Paspatis M. Feeding management in fish. In: Houlihan, D.F., (Boujard, T., Jobling, M. Eds.), Feed Intake in Fish. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2001, 332-353.
[2] Jobling M. Simple indices for the assessment of the influences of social environment on growth performance, exemplified by studies on Arctic charr. Aquacult. Int. 1995, 3(1), 60-65.
Hovgaard P. A new system of sieving for benthic samples. Sarsia, 1973, 53, 13-15.
[3] Goddard S. Feed Management in Intensive Aquaculture. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA, 1996, 194.
[4] Abid M.; Ahmed M.S. Efficacy of feeding frequency on growth and survival of Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings under intensive rearing. J.Anim.Plant Sciences, 2009, 19, 111-113.
[5] Nekoubin H.; Rakhshanipour G.; HatefI S.; Sudagar M.; Montajam S. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance and Survival Rate of Zebra Fish (Danio rerio). Advanced Journal of Agricultural Research, 2013, 1, 007-010.
[6] Mizanur R.M.; Bai S.C. A review of the optimum feeding rates and feeding frequency in Korean rockfish Sebastes schelgeli reared at seven different temperatures. Fish Aquat Sci. 2014, 17(2), 229-247.
[7] Jamabo N.A.; Fubara R.I.; Dienye H.E. Feeding Frequency on Growth and Feed Conversion of Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 2015, 3(1), 353-356.
[8] Kaya G.K.; Bilguven M. The Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance and Proximate Composition of Young Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludag University, 2015, 29(1), 11-18.
[9] Zakaria M.H.; Amin S.M.N.; Arshad A.; Rahman M.A.; Christanus A.; Azrie M.Z.N. Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance of endangered emoleh, Probarbus Jullieni (Sauvage 1818) juveniles. J. Environmental Biology. 2016, 37, 825-828.
[10] Alemayehu T.A.; Getahun A. Effect of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance and Survival of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. 1758) in a Cage Culture System in Lake Hora-Arsedi, Ethiopia. J Aquac Res Development. 2017, 8(4), 479.
[11] Barakat A.; Roumieh R.; Abdel M.N.E.; Ghanawi J.; Patrick S.I. Feed Regimen affects growth, condition index, proximate analysis and myocyte ultrastructure of juvenile spine rabbit fish, Signaus rivulatus. Aquaculture nutrition, 2011, 17(3), e773-e780.
[12] Boerrigter J.G.J.; van den Bos R.; van de Vis H.; Spanings T.; Flik G. Effects of density, PVC-tubes and feeding time on growth, stress and aggression in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Journal of Aquaculture, 2016, 47 (8), 2553-2568.
[13] Garg S.K.; Kalla A. Laboratory and field investigations on the effect of scheduled meal timings on growth performance and nutrient retention in an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham) fingerlings: Effect on nitrogen retention and excretion of metabolites. Aquaculture Research, 2017, 48(12), 5940-5954.
[14] Ng K.W.; Lu K.S.; Hashim R.; Ali A. Effects of feeding rate on growth, feed utilization and body composition of a tropical Bagrid catfish. Aquaculture International, 2000, 8(1), 19-29.
[15] Wu B.; Luoa S.; Wang J. Effects of temperature and feeding frequency on ingestion and growth for rare minnow. Physiology & Behavior, 2015, 140, 197-202.
[16] Choudhury B.B.P.; Das D.R.; Ibrahim M.; Chakraborty S.C. Relationship between feeding frequency and growth of one Indian Major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.) Fingerlings fed on different formulated diets. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2002, 5(10), 1120-1122.
[17] Biswas G.; Jena J.K.; Singh S.K.; Patmajhi P.; Muduli K.K. Effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) during nursery rearing. Aquaculture, 2006, 254, 211-218.
[18] Spyridakis P.; Metailler R.; Gabandan J.; Riaza A. Studies on nutrient digestibility in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. I. Methodological aspects concerning faeces collection. Aquaculture, 1989, 77(1), 61-70.
[19] APHA (American Public Health Association). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. APHA, AWWA, WPFC, 16 ed.; New York, 2005.
[20] Sumagaysay-Chavoso N.S. Nitrogen and phosphorus digestibility and excretion of different-sized groups of milkfish (Chanos chanos forsskal) fed formulated and natural food-based diets. Aquaculture Research, 2003, 34(5), 407-418.
[21] AOAC. Association of official analytical chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International, 19 ed.; Arlington, 2012.
[22] Furukawa A.; Tuskahara H. On the acid digestion method for determination chromic oxide as an indicator substance in the study of digestibility in fish. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for the Science of Fish, 1966, 32, 502-506.
[23] Steffens W. Principles of fish nutrition. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, U.K, 1989, 384.
[24] Cho C.Y.; Slinger S.J.; Bayley H.S. Bioenergetics of salmonids fishes:energy intake, expenditure and productivity. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 1982, 73(1), 25-41.
[25] Henken A.M.; Lucas H.; Tijseen P.A.T.; Machiels M.A.M. A comparison between methods used to determine the energy content of feed, fish and faeces samples. Aquaculture, 1986, 58(3-4), 195-201.
[26] Brett J.R.; Groves T.D.D. Physiological energitics. In. W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall and J.R.Bret (Editor), Fish Physiology, Academic Press, New York, 1979, 8, 279-352.
[27] Snedecor G.W.; Cochran W.C. Statistical methods. Iowa State University Press, Ames. Iowa, USA, 1982, 507.
[28] Wetzel R.C.; Likens G.E. Limnological analysis Saunders, Philadelphia, 1979.
[29] Washington H.G. Diversity, biotic and similarity indices. Water Research, 1984, 18(6), 653-694.
[30] Boyd C.E. Water quality for pond aquaculture. Res and Develop Series, 1998, 43, 1-11.
[31] Prien M.; Hulta G.; Pauly D. On the use of multivariate statistical methods in aquaculture research. In: M. Prien, G. Hulata and D. Pauly (eds.) Multivariate methods in: Aquaculture Research: case studies of tilapias in experimental and commercial systems. ICLARM Study Review. 1993, 20, 1-2.
[32] Grayton B.D.; Beamish F.W.H. Effects of feeding frequency on food intake, growth and body composition of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Aquaculture. 1977, 11, 159-172.
[33] Kasiri M.; Farahi A.; Sudagar M. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance and Survival Rate of Angel Fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae). Vet. Res. Forum. 2011, 2(2), 97-102.
[34] Asuwaju F.P.; Onyeche, V.O.; Ogbuebunu K.E.; Moradun H.F.; Robert E.A. Effect of Feeding Frequency on Growth and Survival Rate of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings Reared in Plastic Bowls. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 2014, 9(5), 425-429.
[35] De Silva S.S.; Anderson T.A. Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Aquaculture series. Chapman & Hall, London, 1995, 319.
[36] He D.; Li G.; Xie H.; Liu S.; Luo, Y. Effects of Feeding Frequency on the Post-Feeding Oxygen Consumption and Ammonia Excretion of the Juvenile Snakehead. Turkish journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2015, 15(2), 293-301.
[37] Nekoubin H.; Sudagar M. Effect of formulate and plant diets on growth performance and survival rate of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngdon idella). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 2012, 4(4), 386-389.
[38] Adebayo O.T.; Balogun A.M.; Fagbenro O.A. Effects of feeding rate on growth, body composition and economic performance of juvenile clariid catfish hybrid (female Clarias gariepinus × male Heterobranchus bidorsalis). J. Aquaculture in Tropics. 2000, 15(2), 109-117.
[39] Ali T.E.S.; Martínez-Llorens S.; Moñino A.V.; Cerdá M.J.; Vidal A.T. Effects of body weekly feeding frequency and previous ration restriction on the compensatory growth and composition of Nile tilapia fingerlings. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 2016, 42(3), 357-363.
[40] Kayano Y.; Yao S.; Yamamoto S.; Nakagawa H. Effects of feeding frequency on the growth and body constituents of young red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus kaara. Aquaculture, 1993, 110(3-4), 271-278.
[41] Lee S.M.; Cho S.H.; Kim D.J. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary energy level on growth and body composition of juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel). Aquaculture Research, 2000, 31(12), 917-921.
[42] Obe B.W.; Omodara G.K. Effect of Feeding Frequency on the Growth and Feed Utilization of Catfish Hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis X Clarias gariepinus) Fingerlings. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2014, 3(3), 09-16.
[43] Biswas G.; Thirunavukkarasu A.R.; Sundara J.K.; Kailasam M. Optimization of feeding frequency of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fry reared in net cages under brackishwater environment. Aquaculture, 2010, 305(1-4), 26-31.
[44] Caldini N.N.; Pereira N.V.; Rebouças V.T.; do Carmo e Sá MV. Can a small change in the tilapias on-going feeding strategy impair its growth?.Acta Scientiarum Animal. Sciences, 2013, 35(3), 227-234.
[45] Marinho G.; Peres H.; Carvalho A.P. Effect of feeding time on dietary protein utilization and growth of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquaculture Research, 2014, 45(5), 828-833.
[46] Kitagawa A.T.; Costa L.S.; Paulino R.R.; Luz, R.K. Rosa P.V.; Guerra-Santos B.; Fortes-Silva B. Feeding behavior and the effect of photoperiod on the performance and hematological parameters of the pacama catfish (Lophiosilurus alexandri). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2015, 171, 211-218.
[47] Mattos B.O.; Filho E.C.T.N.; Barreto K.A.; Braga L.G.T.; Silva R.F. Self-feeder systems and infrared sensors to evaluate the daily feeding and locomotor rhythms of Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) cultivated in outdoor tanks. Aquaculture, 2016, 457, 118-123.
[48] Phillips T.A.; Summerfet R.C.; Clayton R.D. Feeding frequency effects on water quality and growth of walleye fingerlings in intensive culture. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 1998, 60(1), 1-8.
[49] Garg S.K.; Bhatnagar A. Effect of varying doses of organic and inorganic fertilizers on plankton production and fish biomass in brackish water fish ponds. Aquaculture Research, 1996, 27(3), 157-166.
[50] Garg S.K.; Bhatnagar A. Effect of different doses of organic fertilizer (cow-dung) on pond productivity and fish biomass in still water ponds. J. Appl. Ichthyology, 1999, 15(1), 10-18.
[51] Randolph K.N.; Clemens H.P. Some factors influencing the feeding behaviour of channel catfish in culture ponds. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 1976, 105(6), 718-724.
[52] Knud-Hansen C.F.; Batterson T.R. Effect of fertilization frequency on the production of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 1994, 123(3-4), 271-280.
[53] Garg S.K.; Bhatnagar A. Effect of fertilization frequency on pond productivity and fish biomass in still water ponds. Aquaculture Res. 2000, 31(5), 409-414.
[54] Cuenco M.L.; Stickney R.R.; Grant W.E. Fish bioenergetics and growth in aquaculture ponds: III. Effects of intraspecific competition, stocking rate, stocking size and feeding rate on fish productivity. Ecol. Modelling, 1985, 28(1-2), 73-95.
[55] Giberson A.V.; Litvak K. Effect of feeding on growth, food conversion efficiency, and meal size of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon and short nose sturgeon. N. Am. J. Aquacult. 2003, 65(2), 99-105.
[56] Zakęś Z.; Demska-Zakęś K. The influence of feeding frequency on the metabolic rate of perch Perca fluviatilis L. Archives of Polish Fisheries, 2002, 10, 23-39.
[57] Zakęś Z. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion by pikeperch, stizostedion lucioperca (L.), reared in a water recirculation system (in Polish with English summary). Archives of Polish Fisheries, 1999, 7, 5-55.

Related Articles