Agricultural Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 1-18; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Negative Effects of Heat Stress on Physiological and Immunity Responses of Farm Animals

Agricultural Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 1-18.

DOI: 10.31058/

Habeeb, A .A .M. 1* , A. A. El-Tarabany 1 , A. E. Gad 1 , M. A. Atta 1

1 Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

Received: 27 November 2017; Accepted: 20 December 2017; Published: 31 January 2018

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Numerous physiologic changes occur in the digestive system, acid-base chemistry, and blood hormones during hot weather. Neurons that are temperature sensitive are located throughout the animal’s body and send information to the hypothalamus, which invokes numerous physiological, anatomical or behavioral changes in the attempt to maintain heat balance. In response of farm animals to heat stress, their activity, roughage intake and rumination decrease, while their water intake increase, evaporative loss through sweating, respiration, panting and rectal temperature increase in respective order. Regarding blood metabolites and biochemical changes, exposure to heat stress is accompanied by decline in concentrations of glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, total lipids, cholesterol, red blood cells, hemoglobin and haematocrit. A decreasing in the level of blood hormones due to heat stress, especially, anabolic hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, triiodotyronine, thyroxin and aldosterone. However, the circulating blood cortisol, follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol showed conflicting results due to the duration of heat exposure, the intensity of environmental heat, species, breed and age of the farm animals.


Heat Stress, Animal, Physiological Parameters, Immunity, Blood Components, Hormones


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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