Art and Design, Vol. 5, Issue 2, Jun  2022, Pages 94-102; DOI: https://doi.org/10.31058/j.ad.2022.52013 https://doi.org/10.31058/j.ad.2022.52013

Exploration of the Ideal Greenway Form in “A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains”

, Vol. 5, Issue 2, Jun  2022, Pages 94-102.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31058/j.ad.2022.52013

Qinglin Wen 1 , Jianfeng Yuan 2*

1 School of Fine Arts, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China

Received: 13 April 2022; Accepted: 28 May 2022; Published: 12 May 2022

Abstract

“A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains” is one of the top ten famous paintings in China. The author of the painting, Wang Ximeng, depicts the scenery of Jiangnan in the Northern Song Dynasty. This paper uses iconography as a research method to find the ideal pattern concept of the ancients in Chinese landscape painting, analyzes the path form of Qianli Jiangshan Map, seeks the ideal form of greenway, and summarizes the type characteristics of greenway. Summarize the development direction of greenway in contemporary living environment, and discuss the functional development of ideal greenway form.

Keywords

A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains, Greenway Form, Ideal

1. Introduction

Greenway is a hot topic in China in recent years. The development of Greenway Construction and planning in China has been in the bud. Under the background of the development of urban greenway in recent years, through the analysis of ancient Chinese traditional painting, we can understand the ancient peoples concept of ideal living environment and explore the development of todays Greenway Construction.

1.1. The Greenway Concept

The term greenway was first coined and used by Whyte in 1959, before it was first officially recognized by the Presidential Commission on Outdoor Recreation in 1987. Little divides them into 5 main types: a. urban river (or other body of water) corridors; b. recreational greenways such as various trails and trails; c. natural corridors emphasizing ecological functions; d. scenic or historical routes; e. Comprehensive greenway and network system. Both definitions above are widely cited. The former reflects a different emphasis on human accessibility than nature reserves and national parks. The latter defines several different greenway types..Ahern then, based on a literature review and combined with American experience, defined greenways as those planned for a variety of uses (including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic, and other uses consistent with sustainable land use). A land network of linear elements, designed and managed. The definition emphasizes 5 points: a. the spatial structure of greenways is linear; b. connection is the most important feature of greenways; c. greenways are multifunctional, including ecological, cultural, social and aesthetic functions; Sustained is the balance between nature conservation and economic development; d. Greenway is a specific spatial strategy of a complete linear system. [1]

1.2. Development Status at Home and Abroad

The research on greenways started early, and has gradually shifted from the discussion of planning methods and evaluation techniques to the study of greenway implementation, management strategies and the analysis of successful cases. [2] Since the 1990s, as a multidisciplinary research hotspot such as landscape architecture design, urban planning and ecology, greenways have achieved remarkable results in theoretical research and planning practice in various countries. In his book Greenways in America, Charles Sletto defines a greenway as a corridor along natural landscapes such as river banks, valleys, or ridgelines, or along abandoned railway lines, scenic roads, etc. for recreational use. The linear open space created by the artificial landscape corridor includes all natural and artificial landscape routes that can be accessed by pedestrians and cyclists. [3] Most domestic researches on greenways belong to the introduction of foreign concepts, [4,5,6,7] A small number of studies have explored the application of greenway theory in China and achieved certain research results [8,9,10,11].

2. Majestic Classical Music - “A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains”

A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains, with a total length of about 12 meters, is one of the top ten famous paintings in China. The author of the painting, Wang Ximeng, depicts the scenery of Jiangnan in the Northern Song Dynasty. There are many mountains and rivers in the painting. Wang Ximeng, a court painter in the Northern Song Dynasty, was only 18 years old when he created this work. A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains adopts a linear composition, and the interspersed use of various composition methods of high, far and flat makes the scenery of mountains and rivers in the painting ups and downs, full of strong rhythm and fascinating.

From the overall composition design, there are seven groups of mountains, with ups and downs, as if immersed in a classical symphony, this painting feels like there is a sound. At the beginning, the prelude is characterized by low peaks and many hills, and gradually, starting from the second group of mountains and the third group of mountains, the mountains are getting higher and higher, like the music gradually developing to the climax. The fifth group of mountains is like the fifth movement. It is the peak of the whole piece. The peak is straight into the sky, surrounded by peaks. The seventh stanza is the final ending, with a very loud music sound, and several peaks suddenly rise up like a loud ending music.

2.1. Into Painting - Light

A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains starts from the first and second sections of the mountain on the right side of the picture. The overall mountain is the lower part of the whole picture, and the vacant part of the mountain is in the form of smoke. On the mountain on the right, a farmer and a hoe are walking on the path in the mountain. Following the path in the mountain, a small village suddenly appears in front of you. Looking up at the high cliffs and cliffs, you can hear birds chirping. A simple mountain bridge with ups and downs, the path in the mountain winding up and down, is another mountain village, the path in the mountain passes through the fence and the courtyard wall, climbs the stairs, climbs high, and there is a small pavilion high. Looking for a path in the mountains, the terrain is gentle, and the old ancient trees at the end are in a strange shape. (Figure 1)

4

Figure 1. A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains - Into painting - light.

(Source: Author' s own drawing)

2.2. Import - Light

The third section of the mountain in the picture scroll is separated from the first section of the picture scroll by the lake, and the third and fourth sections of the mountain are the introduction part of the picture scroll. The path in the mountain is curved and undulating from the second section of the mountain. The second section of the mountain is divided into left and right ends, connected by a long bridge, and a high mountain appears. The narrow bridge deck can only allow one person and one donkey to pass, and there are trestle roads. Serpentine, into the wooden footing of the mountain, on the left, is the deep valley, the waterfall rushes out of the mountain, and the blue-blue boulders break the water and fall down layer by layer. The large house surrounded by fences and the main building in the center is a rare cross type. Looking up, high mountains appear, with meandering plank roads that penetrate into the wooden footings of the mountain, and a deep valley on the left. The large house surrounded by fences and the main building in the center is a rare cross type. (Figure 2)

5

Figure 2. A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains - Import - light.

(Source: Author' s own drawing)

2.3. Orgasm - Heavy

The fifth section of the mountain in the painting is the climax. The mountain in the painting is the highest mountain in the whole volume. There are many peaks of different heights surrounding it. There are main and secondary peaks forming a trend. Straight down, from the bottom of the mountain to the top of the mountain is called high and far. The high and far situation is abrupt, that is, the landscape is used to manage the location. There is a very common type of landscape in the palace paintings of the Northern Song Dynasty. The main peak is towering into the clouds, majestic and honest, and the palace is on the main peak. The clouds are looming, and the peaks are attached around the main peak like a pilgrimage, using the relationship between the main peak and the peaks. The size and position of the mountain are used to refer to the order of superiors and inferiors, and to express the ideal political order.In the valley on the right side of the main peak, although there are no iconic buildings such as pagodas, it should be a large monastery or Taoist temple in the deep mountains in terms of geographical location, architectural layout and shape.

The path in the mountain in the fifth section is the most representative of the whole volume. The path in the mountain is unpredictable, sometimes wrapping around the mountain, sometimes winding up, and sometimes disappearing between the mountains and forests. The long path connects the villages in the mountains, the shape is higher or lower, or protruding or hidden. (Figure 3)

Figure 3. A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains - Orgasm - heavy.

(Source: Author' s own drawing)

2.4. Destiny - Slow Down

The sixth and seventh sections of the mountain in the painting are the last part of the picture scroll. The sixth and seventh sections of the mountain are divided into two ends, like the last chapter of a piece of music, gradually descending. At the end of the picture scroll, a peak suddenly rises. Between the low mountains, it seems to bring the last wonderful performance to this classical music. The path in the mountain is gentle, with little ups and downs, as if it feels calm. (Figure 4)

5

Figure 4. A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains - Destiny - slow down.

(Source: Author' s own drawing)

2.5. Path Morphological Characteristics of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains

Based on the appeal, this paper analyzes the overall trend and morphological characteristics of the paths in the mountains in each part of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains. Through the method of image analysis, the path of each part is intercepted and the final analysis is carried out. As shown in the figure below, the left side is the peaks of the first, second, sixth and seventh paragraphs of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains, and the right side is the third, fourth and fifth paragraphs of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains. The peaks on the left are generally flat, and the middle is not connected with too many living environment spaces. On the contrary, the peaks on the right are generally changeable, and the middle is connected with more living environment spaces. In general, the front and back are flat, and the middle is rising, which is the core of the path shape of the picture scroll. ( Figure 5)

8

Figure 5. Analysis of Path Shape of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains.

(Source: Author' s own drawing)

3. Characteristics and Types of Ideal Greenway Forms

A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains adopts the scatter perspective method, placing rolling mountains and mountains and vast rivers and lakes into a long picture, among which pavilions, pavilions or simple houses are dotted in the mountains, slopes, and water banks, and the layout is orderly. and relevance. If the boundary of the picture scroll is used as the courtyard wall, it is a large garden. Through a winding path, the natural scenery and architectural figures of different shapes are connected in series, giving the landscape painting a sense of scene.

There is a conclusion in Ten Books of Yangzhai - The place where people live should be dominated by the earth, mountains and rivers, of which Taian is the representative of the site selection of the human mountain and forest habitation environment. The same is true for greenways. Only in line with the concept of harmony between man and nature, the form of greenways can be the ideal state that people pursue. From the analysis in the previous chapter, the ideal greenway can be obtained. Morphological characteristics and types.

3.1. Feature

The beginning of the ideal greenway form should have an introductory effect. Like the light expression at the beginning of the picture scroll, it will bring the audience into the realm of hermits. It connects the wonderful climax of the front and back sections, and the most important section is the core of the entire greenway. It is like the heavy expression technique of the picture scroll, which has the function of expressing the most core concept, and the last section is like the heavy expression of the picture scroll. The expression technique of slow down plays a role in consolidating the overall situation, summarizing and echoing the story line presented by the whole picture scroll.

3.2. Type

The type of ideal greenway form is based on the concept of harmonious coexistence between man and nature. The type of ideal greenway form is inseparable from the scope of human activities and the structure of the ecological environment of nature. As shown in the figure below, from the picture analysis of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains, it can be roughly divided into six types: recreational and sightseeing type, artificial type, natural type, river type, community type and comprehensive type. The comparisons are organized into a Table 1.

Table 1. Path type comparison.

Legend

Greenway Type

Morphological description

Reality Legend

9

Recreation and sightseeing Type

It has the functions of watching natural scenery, playing and resting, and the form is artificial subjective construction.

10

11

Artificial Type

Taking human beings as the service object, it provides people with convenient driving channels, and has the function of means of transportation. The form is artificial subjective construction.

12

13

Natural Type

Natural without carving, born in accordance with the structure of the natural environment. The form is non-artificial.

14

15

River Type

Born along the river, the overall shape is the trend of the river, and it also has the function of rest, and the shape is semi-artificial.

17

18

Community Type

Taking community life as the service object, it is purposeful. The shape is artificial.

19

20

Comprehensive Type

Based on the natural environment, it is versatile. The form is semi-artificial.

21

(Source: Author' s self-photographing and self-painting)

4. Explore the Functions of the Ideal Greenway Form

In A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains, Gao Shi, who lives in seclusion in the mountains and fields, is mostly an ancient Chinese landscape painter, and is closely related to the painters artistic conception of tourism and living and harmony between man and nature of the natural landscape of the landscape. [12] The author shocked the world with the expression method of the interest of a thousand miles at a distance. The mountains and valleys, rolling hills and countless rivers have different shapes, and there is no sense of repetition. The reason why there is no sense of repetition is that the painter skillfully used the shape of the path combined with the expression technique of the painting, so as to express the details of each part of the painting vividly and skillfully. The path is like todays greenway, and its morphological structure is what we need to pay attention to.

Little believes that greenways originated from the fusion of parkways and green belts in the 19th century. Their original function was to provide scenic driveways for recreational use; after World War I and World War II, greenways appeared more interesting. Hierarchies, organizational structures, and specialized recreational programs; by the 1960s and 1970s, there was a greater focus on the economic function of greenway development, but also evoked environmental educational, historical, and aesthetic functions. Recently, with the rise of post-modern thought, people are paying more and more attention to social functions, and from the perspective of the development process of greenways, their main functions have developed with the development of history. The general trend of greenway functions is to become more and more complex, with more and more objectives.

The social and cultural functions of greenways have been paid more and more attention by scholars. Lewis had earlier noticed the educational function of greenways. Compared with any other form of open space, greenways have more social and personal communication functions. 90% of the historical and cultural relics are concentrated on both sides of the natural corridor, so the greenway can stimulate peoples patriotic enthusiasm and has more commemorative value. [1]

The linearity, high connectivity, and high accessibility of greenways make them suitable carriers for linear sports such as cycling and walking. Therefore, the rise of greenways is closely related to the development of recreational activities. At the same time, because greenways are often built along the banks of streams and rivers, they further enhance their landscape beauty and recreational attraction, thus providing a venue guarantee for the development of recreational activities. At the same time, the greenway can connect the parks, scenic spots, sites and other scenic spots with conservation significance, so as to avoid the interference of motorized traffic and human development. The heritage corridor is a linear cultural landscape greenway, which is the product of the combination of green passage and heritage protection regionalization. It has played a role in promoting the protection of natural and cultural heritage. [9]

5. Conclusions

The traditional Chinese cosmology, nature, landscape, environment, and aesthetics coincide with, complement each other, and form a system of Chinese landscape painting, taking into account the natural ecological environment, man-made environment, and visual environment of the landscape. Wang Ximengs map of a thousand miles of rivers and mountains fully demonstrates that Tao travels in art, art conforms to Tao in the combination of landscapes, which is an artistic innovation. [14] This paper uses iconography as a research method to find the ideal pattern concept of the ancients in Chinese landscape painting, analyzes the path form of Qianli Jiangshan Map, seeks the ideal form of greenway, and summarizes the type characteristics of greenway. Summarize the development direction of greenway in contemporary living environment, discuss the functional development of ideal greenway form, and provide conceptual reference for the construction of greenway form in future cities.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Funding

This work was supported by the 2020 annual research project of the 13th Five-Year Plan of Education Science in Guangdong Province, grant number 2020GXJK128, also was supported by Guangzhou Philosophy and Social Sciences 14th Five-Year Plan 2021 Co-construction Project, grant number 2021GZGJ274.

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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