Art and Design, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar  2020, Pages 24-39; DOI:

Cultural Connotation and Inheritance Protection of Decorative Art in Chaoshan Traditional Residential Buildings

, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar  2020, Pages 24-39.


Jinying Zhan 1*

1 Art Design, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

Received: 5 December 2019; Accepted: 5 January 2020; Published: 19 January 2020


The decorative design culture of Chaoshan traditional folk houses is extensive and profound, among which, it is decorated with various shapes and complicated carvings. The component is the finishing touch. The traditional folk houses in Chaoshan and the Central Plains have a deep historical origin. It has not only been a pure traditional folk house, but has become a complex that contains the unique art, culture, aesthetic meaning, and philosophical ideas of the Chaoshan area. Its formation and development to a certain extent, it represents the development trajectory and cultural and artistic orientation of the entire Chaoshan area. Based on the regional culture, artistic characteristics and humanistic thoughts of the region’s regional cultural, artistic and humanistic thoughts, this article through the previous two chapters on the historical causes of Chaoshan traditional folk house decoration and the main decorative component features Analyze with the type of structure itself. The decoration of Chaoshan traditional folk house is its inheritance and development in the historical development of Chaoshan area for thousands of years. The simple design idea of Chaozhou reflected in the decoration has profound influence on the combination of modern advocated design and local culture. The status quo of Chaoshan traditional dwellings is summarized, and how to properly inherit and carry forward based on traditional cultural thoughts, and to a certain degree of analysis based on their own design works, sum up the unique development rules of Chaoshan traditional dwellings, This common cultural heritage of mankind has been better inherited, protected and developed.


Chaoshan Traditional Culture, Chaoshan Traditional Houses, Decorative Arts, Cultural and Artistic Connotation, Protection, Inheritance, Development

1. Introduction

China has a long history, and its local architecture is full of unique features. Chaoshan traditional dwellings are one of the wonderful things. The ancient saying Kyoto Imperial Palace, Chaoshan peoples home, praised the Chaoshan dwellings. The unit buildings of the Chaoshan dwellings are mainly downhill tigers and four-point gold. The extended buildings include Hummer trailers and a hundred birds and phoenixes. The main body in the complex is four-point gold or four-point gold, which is extremely luxurious and often serves as an ancestral temple. Qingfu County Zhizhao: The clan will build a house, and it will build a temple [1]. You will be magnificent.” “The sculptures and beams, the bamboo trees in the pool, will be extremely skillful. The bulk of the small, competing and building the temple, arrogant and magnificent, will not hesitate to pay. Next, we will discuss some of the decorative arts of Chaoshan traditional houses.

2. Overview of the History of the Tides

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The introduction of your article is organized as a funnel that begins with a definition of why the experiment is being performed and ends with a specific statement of your research approach. And it highlights controversial and diverging hypotheses when necessary.

A hundred million years ago, the entire Chaoshan area was still vast [2]. About a hundred million years ago, it changed from the ocean to the land, and later it was repeatedly changed from the land to the ocean. Until about this year, the seawater receded and formed the current landscape. In ancient times, the Chaoshan area has been called Chaozhou. The ancient name “Chaozhou Bagua” refers to Chaozhou County, which is Chaozhou, Jieyang, Chaoyang, Raoping, Chenghai, Puning, Huilai and today. When Shantou was opened, economic and trade doubled and developed, and it gradually replaced Chaozhou as the political, economic, and cultural center of the region. The concept of the region was created.


Figure 1. Chaoshan location.

3. Chaoshan Traditional Residential Art Decoration Art Culture Background

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In Chinese traditional culture, the philosophical thought of " Heaven and Man are one" is the most basic cultural connotation of traditional residential architecture. It embodies the harmonious coexistence between man and nature [3,4]. The decorative art of Chaoshan traditional dwelling houses reflects the pursuit of Heaven and Man. The philosophical thought, which is embodied by the natural attributes and characteristics of things.

The decoration of Chaoshan dwellings reflects the ideological activities and moral values of the living groups through a certain material carrier. In the Chaoshan residential buildings, the gates, the hall halls, the ridges of the ridges, the pillars of the beams, the door panes, etc. are all decorated as exquisitely as possible; the content of the decoration is rich in variety and is a portrayal of Chinese traditional cultural awareness. In the architectural layout and decoration of the traditional residences of Chaoshan, such as four points of gold, downhill tigers, four horse trailers and hundred birds and phoenixes, they all reflect the fundamental philosophy of Heaven and Man; it also reflects the cultural concepts, religious concepts, artistic concepts and feng shui concepts of the residential groups.



Figure 2. four-point gold architectural layout.

Figure 3. downhill tiger architectural layout.

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Figure 4. four horse trailer architectural layout.

Figure 5. Hundreds of birds and phoenixes architectural layout.

Chaoshan residential decoration is the epitome of Chaoshan traditional culture. Under the influence of the traditional cultural concept of pursuing peace and auspiciousness and praying for wealth, the traditional concept consciousness was expressed through the decoration of residential houses. Such as unicorn, deer, crane and goldfish, etc. are often given the meaning of auspiciousness, longevity and wealth; the words shouli and ju' anare written on the threshold, which is also a wish to express the pursuit of peace and longevity and auspicious residence. The pattern of the four-point gold Founder symmetry is easily extended to the Zongtang and the family temple. The ancestral ancestral temple is a place where ancestors and ancestors are worshipped, reflecting the patriarchal ethics. The concept of feng shui has a great influence on the decoration of Chaoshan dwellings [5]. The concept of feng shui in dwellings uses symbolic patterns to express meaning and hints, praying for wealth and good fortune;



Figure 6. Kirin, deer, crane.

Figure 7. Goldfish decoration.

For example, the five rows of gables decorated with five styles of gold, wood, water, fire, and earth are unique to Chaoshan and are commonly used in residential buildings. Similarly, in the decoration of Chaoshan dwellings, there is an artistic concept. The clay sculptures and paints and paintings are all beautiful, the wood carvings and stone carvings are vivid, and the porcelain inlays are colorful. The Birds of the Birds in Chaozhou Fuzhi” “It is the beauty of art that praises the decoration of Chaoshan dwellings.

Figure 8. Gold, wood, water, fire, earth five styles five-line gable detail.

Therefore, Chaoshan residential decoration is a portrayal of cultural concepts, which profoundly affects the concept, conception and design of residential decoration [6].

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Figure 9. Gold, wood, water, fire, earth five styles five-line gable.

4. " Non-legacy" Chaoshan Traditional Residential Art Decoration Content

4.1. Painting

The decorative decoration of traditional Chinese dwellings originated very early. Jucai, the mountain festival algae, how is it known? (The Analects of Confucius and Gongye Chang) Cai is the name of a tortoise used for divination, mountain festival algae is the arch of the house Carved into the shape of a mountain, the short column on the beam is also painted with algae[7,8]. It can be seen that the houses in the Spring and Autumn Period have been decorated with painted.


Figure 10. Stone carving Kirin wall.

There are three main types of traditional Chinese painting, including enamel painting, whirlpool painting and Su-painting. The enamel painting is mainly based on the dragon and phoenix, which symbolizes authority. The gold powder is used in large quantities. The color is strong, bright and gorgeous. It is only used by the imperial palace and fully displays the authority of the feudal emperor. Most of the vortex paintings are based on the morphological pattern of peony flower deformation. The painting method is exquisite, and it is used by the bureaucracy. The Su-style painting is based on landscapes, flowers and birds, with flexible composition and rich content. Garden buildings and Jiangnan houses are mostly used. The Chaoshan residential paintings mainly use Soviet-style paintings, and always retain the traditional content. Among the various patterns, there are pictures of flower and grass worms, fish and birds, and landscape characters, and give them auspicious meanings, such as bats for blessings, peaches for shou, deer for lu, etc. Later, the story of the Chao Opera was put on the wall as the theme painting [9]. The main wall is usually Guo Ziyi worshipping life, and the side wall has Mu Guiying coaching and Shui Man Jinshan, etc., showing the regional characteristics of the Chaoshan dwellings [10]; By the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, new things such as ships, trains, and western ladies also appeared in the decorative murals of the Chaoshan residential walls, reflecting the influence of marine culture on Chaoshan dwellings and the spirit of Chaoshan people advancing with the times.

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Figure 11. Eight diagrams color painting.

Figure 12. Woodcarving color painting gold foil.

In the Ming Dynasty, it was stipulated that the Princes Palace is decorated with Zhu Hong, and the room is decorated with green and green. [11] The colorful paintings are in harmony with the evergreen earth in the evergreen, harmonious and unified, which constitutes a beautiful landscape and reflects the aesthetic taste of Chaoshan people. Painted pigments are mostly natural mineral materials, including stone green, azurite, cinnabar, although exposed to the sun, but it does not fade for a long time, far better than the modern acrylic paint. [12] Painted craftsmen are often the guest of honor, and the host treats them with fine wines and delicacies. The craftsmans creation is a stroke, meticulous and ingenious, and has made outstanding contributions to the art of painting, and has also received the respect that society should have.

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Figure 13. Foyer stone carving painting gold.

Figure 14. Gate God.

4.2. Woodcarving

Wood carvings are used for the decoration of homes, and the origins are very early. The above quoted Confucius said the woodcarving. The woodcarving craft has relief, through-carving and round carving. The woodcarving decoration of traditional houses in Chaoshan has a history of more than a thousand years [13]. The oldest surviving one is the cirrus on the arch of the Xufu Mafu in Chaozhou. A large number of wood carvings are used for the Qing Dynasty. The corridors, worship pavilions and halls, the arches and arches, the window fans of the doors, are the best places for woodcarving artists to show their talents. The lacquered wood and cedar are used as raw materials, and the lacquered wood carvings of lacquer and gold foil, or the black lacquered gold or the multicolored gold, make the whole hall look magnificent. This is the famous Chaozhou gold lacquer wood carving. The existing gold lacquer wood carvings represent the earliest temples and temples of the Kaiyuan Temple [14]. The more complete buildings include the Chaozhou dynasty Huanggong Temple in the late Qing Dynasty.

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Figure 15. Hundred Birds and PhoenixWoodcarving.

Figure 16. A hundred birds toward the phoenix carved local details.

It can be said that the traditional housework of Chaoshan is a must. The gold lacquered wood carvings inside are different from the shape to the connotation, mainly reflected in the " three buckets (wooden) five papaya 18 pieces of flowers). Our common ancestral halls are mainly based on traditional auspicious patterns such as Babao, Four Arts, Eight Auspicious, and Four Treasures. The corners of the combination of bucket and stone pillars also use the fish and dragon change.

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Figure 17. Carved on the beam.

Figure 18. Character carve.

However, it has changed these traditional practices, using historical allusions, historical figures, myths and legends as the main themes of woodcarving, such as Xianghe, Luoshen, San Gu Mao, Baxian crossing the sea, water Man Jinshan, Liu Bei recruiting relatives, and returning to Zhao, etc. Adding folk favorite flowers, birds, insects, fish, mountains, stones and daily vases, bed tables and other themes, clever combination, sly in the Tibetan, and beautiful in the Park, a unique auspicious language, such as the peace of the Daji, the crown with the spread, red top flower buds, Shangshu red apricot, rich and safe, four seasons safe, fish in years. Most of the ancestral halls are decorated with lions on the buckets. The lions on the squadrons are unique. Their tiny hairs are composed of characters and poses, including the meaning of teachers carrying the road and famous teachers, showing the tides. The traditional thought of respecting the teacher [15].


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Figure 19. Wood carving decoration.

Figure 20. Gold lacquer wood carving.

4.3. Stone Carving

The evolution of the traditional folk stone carvings in Chaoshan is basically the same as that of wood carvings. Before the Ming Dynasty, it was ancient and dignified. After that, it was extremely elaborate [16]. From embossing and sinking, to multi-layer hollow carving.

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Figure 21. Stone carving threshold.

Figure 22. Door stone carving component decoration.

For example, the gatehouse is the entrance and exit of the ancestral temple and the “façade” of the clan. It has a special significance in the architectural function idea, and it is sturdy and beautiful, elegant and dignified. Therefore, the gate building is decorated with stone carving components, which is in line with the concept of unification of aesthetics and aesthetics and the cultural character of Zongyi Menlou.

The stone carving decoration of the Huanggong Yumen Building is below the threshold line to the left and right sides of the front wall of the sill line. Each of the four vertical axis floor-type calligraphy stone carvings and the left and right facing wall belly are decorated with a long, carved stone sculpture. The facade is flat and the composition is simple and elegant. Above the threshold line, except for the stone sill door above the threshold, the embossed stone carving board is decorated above the floor stone plate. On the left and right sides of the gate gallery, there is a series of stone sculptures of the characters of Feng Shen Yan Yi. The characters are exquisite and vivid, depicting the historical scenes of the Western Zhou Dynasty.

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Figure 23. Feng Shen Yan character story comic strip stone carving.

Figure 24. Stone drums placed on both sides of the Zongtang gate.

The beam frame is stacked with small-sized stone carving members centered on the beam slab. The stone carving members of the figure are supported by the moiré stone inscribed on the roof beam, and the stone carving members of different characters are separated and spliced together. The outer end of Liang Shu is stoned down. The hanging decoration is hung upside down on the pillars; the upwards are picked up by the hoes to pick up the slabs of stonework to support the beams, and the hooks and the stonework members of the upper beams are intricately conceived. In order to balance the layout of the stone carvings, the stone drums are generally placed on both sides of the Zongyi gate, which adds a little solemnity and mightyness.

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Figure 25. Small figure stone carving member.

4.4. Inlay Porcelain

The inlaid porcelain craft is the invention of the Chaoshan architectural artist. Chaozhou is known as the porcelain capital. Here, there are many discarded pieces of chopped tiles. The five colors are colorful, crystal clear and not faded. It has been found that the use of such tiles instead of painting has more brilliant effects. Therefore, this process is very It is fast-moving and combined with gray plastic, adding processes such as floating and round body. The flat-embedded process is to make a good draft when the wall is not dry, and to select the color-cut ceramic tile for direct embedding. The embossed inlay and the round body are actually made of gray plastic after the green body is finished. The ash is not dried, and the ceramic piece is embedded. Only the face of the character still retains the process of gray plastic powder. Inlaid porcelain is known as the everlasting bright plastic art, and Chaozhou woodcarving and Chaozhou stone carving are also called the three major decorative arts of Chaozhou ancient architecture. The rich content of the inlaid porcelain expresses the good auspicious will and the aesthetic psychological pursuit of the Chaoshan people.

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Figure 26. Porcelain decoration on the outer round door of the Tibetan Pavilion.

Figure 27. Sanyang (Yang) Kaitai, Wan Ma Pentium (Kaiyuan Temple Palace decoration).

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Figure 28. Guanyin Pavilion roof inlay porcelain decoration (Kaiyuan Temple Temple decoration).

Figure 29. Guanyin Pavilion round door on the porcelain plate (Kaiyuan Temple Temple decoration).

5. Protection and Inheritance of the Decorative Art of Traditional Residences in the Chaoyang

The comfortable living environment of traditional houses in Chaoshan is popular among the people. The decorative decoration is enduring and maintains its original state, becoming the living fossil of the traditional decorative art research of Chinese dwellings. Especially in the countryside, the neatly arranged downhill tigers and four-point gold can be seen everywhere, and they are chic and gorgeous; the clan family is also a huge family of wealth, extremely luxurious and rich.

5.1. The Meaning of Inheritance

Ancient dwellings are the main place for human beings to live and live for generations, and they are the crystallization of human wisdom. It accumulates the rich architectural design ideas of the laborers, with a strong local flavor, and contains rich historical and cultural values. Ancient dwellings are the source and foundation of national architecture, and they are also the true remains of various historical information. As a material cultural heritage, it is the attachment of intangible cultural heritage. The protection of ancient dwellings is of great significance to the inheritance of traditional dwellings. The protection of ancient dwellings in Chaoshan is especially true.

5.1.1. Oral Sex

Due to the needs of industry protection, the decoration process of Chaoshan residential houses is mainly based on word of mouth, and there are few written descriptions. Therefore, the existing works are living materials for decorative arts. Apprentices have the opportunity to get in touch with these excellent works while they are learning.

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Figure 30. Craftsman tells the skill.

5.1.2. Openness

The Chaoshan people have a complex branch, and after the basic style of their residence, they focus on the decorative techniques and styles of the Central Plains, including painting and wood carving. At the same time, it is also learning from overseas. Tile wall and water mill floor are obviously imported. Through absorption and integration, the distinctive style of Chaoshan residential decoration has been formed. Through the exquisite storage, the charm of Chaoshan residential decoration art is displayed.

5.1.3. Mysterious

The Chaoshan dwellings pay attention to Feng Shui, except for the location and layout, as well as the decoration process. On the scale, the use of Jiugong Feixing, white for the Kyrgyzstan; color, red heng blue “jué”, external cold internal heat; there are gold pressure angle, stove, water outlet, etc., all pay attention to the five elements.


Figure 31. Bagua map.

5.1.4. Originality

Chaoshan residential decoration is learning from the outside, following the ancient system, paying more attention to innovation, in order to blame its long-term vitality, using the abandoned porcelain to successfully create the inlaid porcelain process is proof. Moreover, regardless of any decorative style, the craftsmen are always carving, side-by-side, and meticulous at the time of construction. Every completion is the birth of an unrepeatable art. Obviously, this attitude has also inspired the creative inspiration of future generations of craftsmen.

5.2. Existing Problems and Protection Development Proposals

The protection of cultural heritage originated in Europe. The protection of cultural heritage abroad has been more than two hundred years old. Compared with the European countries that have more mature ideas and experiences on the protection of non-legacy culture, Chinas non-legacy cultural protection is more at the stage of groping.

5.2.1. Existing Problems

i. Government

After the reform and opening up, traditional art as a folk art has gradually attracted the attention of the government and the public. However, the art of inlaid porcelain is attached to the large-scale architectural decoration such as the dwelling houses, ancestral halls and temples, and its application space is subject to certain restrictions. In the past, folk artists did not have political status and voice, and their personal works, names and experiences were rarely recorded in official materials. Many of them were only in the folks. The government officially has very few records on this aspect. In addition, the cultural level of the folk artists in recent years is not high, and it is impossible to carry out in-depth creation, research and systematic arrangement of the inlaid porcelain art. There is no relatively fixed lecture and teaching group for traditional skills. The records and descriptions have always been in a state of fragmentation and systematization.

ii. Society

Nowadays, how do we understand the living conditions of our ancestors for centuries or even thousands of years can only feel their wisdom and emotion through tangible heritage and intangible heritage. The protection of intangible cultural heritage is not only to protect a skill, but also to continue one. Intangible national emotions and beliefs. This requires the whole society to pay attention to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. However, the reality is counterproductive. Most people in the society lack sufficient understanding of the historical, cultural and artistic values of inlaid porcelain art as an intangible cultural heritage, thus making the concept of protection weak.

iii. Tradesman

The old folk artists who are engaged in and mastered the precious skills of Chaoshan are already highly arrogant, and they are unable to do it with their own strength, but they suffer from ineffective, inheritors or apprentices to continue their craft. The female towel protected by the intangible cultural heritage is not enough to just leave it. Folk crafts are not objects, they can be protected without being placed in museums. It is alive, and craftsmanship is the most important thing.

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Figure 33. Craftsman creates the scene.

5.2.2. Suggestions for Future Protection Development

i. Government

How to learn from the precious experience of the protection of intangible cultural heritage in other countries is a question that our government needs to think hard.

a. Develop Sound Laws and Regulations

The intangible cultural heritage of European countries has been carried out relatively early, and the destruction of heritage in their view is to lose history and culture. Regardless of how mature their cities are, they have always followed the laws and regulations on the protection of cultural heritage in the development process. This kind of experience is very worth learning from.

b. Cultivate the Successor of Chaozhou Art

Because most folk artists who master the precious skills of Chaoshan are not highly educated, the government needs assistance from the side to improve the follow-up cultivation of the inheritors. It is imperative to clarify the responsibilities, take planned measures, promote the construction of traditional skills, and actively cultivate appropriate professionals. In the relevant colleges and universities to establish a professional discipline of Guan, recruit students of such majors or carry out further courses of such majors. Incorporating folk art into university art education, it provides an extended reading of the inlaid porcelain art at various stages of primary and secondary schools, so that children can have a sense of pride and recognition for their national culture from an early age.

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Figure 34. Traditional culture class.

c. Strengthening the Development and Management of the intangible Cultural Heritage of Tidal Inlaid Porcelain Art

In the face of precious intangible cultural heritage, we must develop and protect it rationally. In particular, the remains of buildings left over from Chaoshan should be legally protected after review and approval by relevant experts. We cannot over-develop cultural heritage for the benefit alone. The government should listen to the local people' s willingness to protect the development of cultural heritage, and deal with the relationship between protection and development in a responsible attitude towards traditional culture. Incorporate the traditional folk art of inlaid porcelain into the development plan of Chaoshan local culture, and deepen the concept of cultural heritage protection to all levels of urban construction.

d. Construction of the Museum of Traditional Culture and Art

The government can fund or convene socially motivated people to jointly build an inlaid porcelain museum. Datun Village, Narita Town, Chaonan District, took the lead in building the exhibition hall of “Dayu Inlay Porcelain. The pavilion consists of two floors, one is the exhibition hall with porcelain inlays, the second floor is the place where the porcelain artists are used to display their crafts, and regular training courses are set up. (Photo. Lu Zhigao, a chef from Chaozhou Humei Village, has invested in himself. A museum is also exhausting its life, in order to spread the traditional culture of Chaoshan.

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Figure 35. Chaozhou Humei Village Chaoshan Traditional Culture Museum.

ii. Advice to Society

a. Opening a Civil Training Course

The best way for art to develop is to walk into the public, especially this folk craft with tidal local characteristics. You can start from the local area through art display and gradually promote the tidal inlays to the society. Private training classes will be held, and local inheritors will be invited to conduct special lectures, and their apprentices will share the content of the lectures, improve their social influence, and let the young people from the arts have more pride and understanding of this craft.



Figure 36. Folk lectures.

Figure 37. Folk training classes.

b. Publishing Crafts

Most of the older artists have a low level of education, and many precious techniques and production processes cannot be preserved in written form. It is not a small project to organize and publish handicraft works. This idea requires the involvement of relevant scholars, such as the collaboration of folk art researchers, folklorists and related enthusiasts. There is also support from the media in the relevant publishing industry.

c. Increase Media Publicity

Relevant governments and the media, enterprises, education and other sectors of society need to give more support and propaganda to the traditional folk skills of inlaid porcelain, so that the excellent national folk art can be passed down for a long time. Use modern technology for imagery and preserve the precious craftsmanship of old artists. The outside related inheritors exchanged ideas and absorbed the essence to each other. Open a public welfare lecture to promote the tide inlay and expand the popularity. Open a community traditional folk craft activity station, taking turns in the form of pictures, videos and brochures.

iii. Advice for Craftsmen

a. For the Cultivation of Followers

Inspire young people to be intimate with traditional handicrafts, let this skill enter the primary and secondary school campus, open a craft course, infect students in the subtle influence, identify the art of Chaoshan, and cause interest in it.

b. For the Inheritor Itself

Today' s masters of arts and crafts and inheritors must work and work. Modern society alone is not worth the money. The key is to give the works a cultural connotation and enhance the cultural brand value. For the inlaid porcelain works handed down by the ancients, we can properly incorporate modern cultural meanings to make them more suitable for today' s aesthetics, and more accepted by the public. For the improvement of the inheritor' s own cultural accomplishment, the master and the inheritor should synchronize the craft practice with the cultural study. It is necessary to understand the historical and cultural meaning behind the skill and make the work more in-depth. Craft masters and inheritors also need to improve their ability to design and manage their own creative design. This is the requirement of the times for the inheritors and the current requirement for the dissemination of intangible cultural heritage.

6. Conclusions

Chaoshan dwellings have unique decorative styles, exquisite decoration techniques and distinctive features. They have unique cultural connotations and aesthetic values. Chaoshan residential art is the epitome of Chaoshan traditional culture. This article focuses on the five techniques of painting, wood carving, stone carving, gray plastic molding and porcelain inlay. However, the decoration of Chaoshan residential houses is far more than these. For example, text art and door decoration also have high artistic research value. Therefore, it is of positive and far-reaching significance to conduct in-depth research on the decorative art of Chaoshan dwellings.

Under the impact of the economic tide, the decorative art of Chaoshan dwellings survived in the cracks. We hope that under the impetus of people of insight, the art of decoration in Chaoshan can be better developed.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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