Art and Design, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar  2020, Pages 1-10; DOI: https://doi.org/10.31058/j.ad.2020.31001 https://doi.org/10.31058/j.ad.2020.31001

Research on Space Design under Urban Viaduct-Take Example of Hua 'An Li in Wuhan

, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar  2020, Pages 1-10.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31058/j.ad.2020.31001

Fan Luo 1* , Shuying Tian 1

1 School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

Received: 1 December 2019; Accepted: 30 December 2019; Published: 11 January 2020

Abstract

With the development of the city and the increase of traffic volume, the urban viaduct has become an important means to solve the urban traffic problems. Meanwhile, the utilization of space under the viaduct has been ignored, resulting in a large number of lost spaces. This paper selects the space under the viaduct in Hua 'an li area of Wuhan city as the research object. Through observation and research, the paper puts forward the principles, strategies and design of space reconstruction, in order to provide reference for the design of space under the viaduct.

Keywords

The Viaduct, Space under the Bridge, Space Utilization

1. Introduction

With the rapid development of cities, traffic congestion is becoming more and more serious. In order to solve this problem, people begin to develop planar roads into three-dimensional traffic, and build viaduct to divert traffic and improve traffic efficiency. In the past, the design of urban viaduct overemphasized the traffic efficiency and function, and neglected the space under the viaduct, resulting in the lack of vitality of the space under the viaduct and the lack of public life. The space under the viaduct is used in a single form, which causes a lot of space waste.

The author believes that the space under the viaduct is also an important part of urban public space and an important place where People' s Daily activities take place. The space under the viaduct can be used as a comprehensive and complex public open space, so as to improve the space environment under the viaduct and activate the vitality of the space under the bridge. This paper selects the space under the viaduct in Hua ' an li area of Wuhan city as the research object. Through the investigation and analysis of the space under the viaduct in Hua ' anli area, the paper puts forward the principles, strategies and design of space reconstruction to improve the space environment under the viaduct and stimulate the vitality of the city, in order to provide reference for the reuse design of the space under the viaduct.

2. The Definition of Space Under Viaduct and its Basic Characteristics

2.1. Concept Definition

2.1.1. The Viaduct

Urban viaducts are Bridges that span roads in urban Bridges, supported by towers or pillars with high supports. Urban viaducts can effectively improve the traffic efficiency. In this paper, the urban viaduct refers to the bridge that undertakes the transportation function in the city, including highway, railway, light rail and so on.

2.1.2. Space under the Viaduct

In a narrow sense, the space under the viaduct refers to the space between the urban viaduct deck and the ground. In a broad sense, it not only includes the space under the deck, but also includes the surrounding area.

2.2. Basic Characteristics of Space under Viaduct

The space under the viaduct is not only an accessory space of the viaduct, but also a part of the public space of the city. In general, the space under the viaduct has the following characteristics.

2.2.1. Continuity

Viaduct, as a traffic space, has continuous functional requirements in order to meet functional requirements. The space under the viaduct belongs to the space of the viaduct, and also has the characteristics of continuity.

2.2.2. Permeability

Permeability means that different Spaces and different forms of matter converge and communicate with each other on the line of sight. The space on both sides of the viaduct is permeated with each other and connected with each other visually. The boundary between the internal space and the external space is not clear, presenting the overall spatial form. In a sense, the viaduct divides the urban space, but because of the permeability of the space under the viaduct, the divided space is integrated.

2.2.3. Ambiguity

As the space under the viaduct has no solid enclosure, the space boundary is only defined by the top element, so there is no clear boundary in the space under the viaduct. Ambiguity makes the sense of space domain become fuzzy, to a certain extent, causing the use of the function not clear.

3. Analysis of the Situation

3.1. Basic Situation

Hua ' an li Is located in jianghan district of Wuhan, covers an area of about 1.08 square kilometers and a population of about 50000 people. Hua ' an li is the most densely populated urban village in Wuhan. It is adjacent to the elevated railway in the north and south, and only a few culverts communicate with the outside world. Due to the lack of government planning and control, there are few outdoor places for people to move (: Figure 1).

Figure 1. Location of Hua ' an li.

The viaduct in Hua ' an li area is the railway viaduct of Handan line section, which is an important railway transportation of Wuhan. It is only 1.6 kilometers away from Hankou railway station. The space under the viaduct in the Hua ' an li area is about 600 meters long. The south side of it is Hua ' an li residential area, and the north side is Changqing park. There are a large number of residential areas around Hua ' an li, the population distribution is relatively dense (: Figure 2).

Figure 2. Viaduct in Hua ' an li area.

In this paper, the space under the viaduct in Hua ' an li area is selected as the research object for the following reasons: First, the viaduct is located in the central area of the city, which is universal and representative. Second, the height and delwidth of the viaduct provide a good foundation for the utilization of the space under the bridge. Third, the viaduct is close to the residential area of Hua' anli, with a large population density and a complex surrounding environment, which brings a variety of possibilities for the use of space under the bridge.

3.2. Analysis of the Use

The space under the viaduct in Hua ' an li area is in a single form of utilization, and most of the space is in a state of neglect, lacking of connection with the surrounding urban space, which separates the relationship with the surrounding urban environment. According to the investigation and analysis of the current situation of the space under the viaduct in Hua ' an li area, there are the following problems:

3.2.1. Space Scattered

As a part of the urban space, the space under the viaduct is rarely combined with the surrounding public space in the community of Hua ' an li. At the same time, the municipal planning department lacks the overall planning layout, which leads to the disorganized use of space under the viaduct and the lack of connection between functions.

3.2.2. Low Utilization

Due to the lack of necessary activity facilities, the space under the viaduct lacks effective attraction to the surrounding residents, with low space utilization rate, poor space quality and lack of vitality.

3.2.3. Function of the Single

Most of the space under the viaduct is used as parking lot, municipal housing and storage housing, and a small amount of space is used as public activities. The use of spatial functions is monotonous and tedious (: Figure 3, : Figure 4, and Figure 5).

Figure 3. Commercial space.

Figure 4. Non-motor vehicle parking.

Figure 5. Motor vehicle parking.

3.2.4. Poor Ecological Environment

The space under the viaduct is polluted by the noise generated by the train running on the bridge in the process of use. At the same time, the space under the viaduct lacks a comfortable greening environment, which results in a bad ecological environment in the site and causes great interference to the utilization of the space under the bridge.

3.2.5. Lack of Effective Management

In the process of using the space under the bridge, due to the lack of effective management and maintenance, the space is abandoned. At the same time, due to the lack of corresponding supervision, part of the space under the bridge is occupied by private persons, which inhibits the occurrence of public activities. In addition, in terms of planning management, there is a lack of overall planning layout, resulting in a lack of connection between the spaces under the bridge.

4. Design Intervention

4.1. Design Principles

4.1.1. The Principle of Adaptability

Due to the viaduct' s own structure, height and the distance between the piers, the use of space under the bridge is restricted. Therefore, the conditions of the bridge structure itself should be fully considered in the design, and the design should be combined with the space structure under the bridge.

4.1.2. The Principle of Integrity

As a part of the city, the space under the viaduct is an organic part of the city. Therefore, when designing the space under the bridge, it is necessary to integrate the space under the viaduct into the whole urban space, fully consider the surrounding environment and functional requirements, effectively organize various elements, reasonably arrange functions, and form an organic and integrated urban public space.

4.1.3. The Principle of Publicness

Publicness is owned and used by the public. As an important part of urban public space, the space under the viaduct is owned by the public and an important place for residents to conduct activities. Public life promotes interpersonal communication and is the source of urban vitality. Therefore, when making use of the space under the viaduct, we should try to meet the requirements of the public, set up relevant activity facilities, and make it a public activity place to attract people to come to activities.

4.1.4. The Principle of Ecological

Due to the limitation of bridge structure, the space under the viaduct has a large span, which leads to poor air circulation and serious pollution. The space under the viaduct is also an important part of the urban ecosystem. Therefore, when making use of the space under the viaduct, we can reasonably match trees and shrubs according to the characteristics of plants, make up for the damage of the viaduct to the ecological environment, and create a good ecological foundation for the space under the bridge.

4.2. Design Strategy

4.2.1. Reasonable Spatial Organization

The development and utilization of the space under the viaduct should be integrated with the space around the city and become part of the urban space system. The space under the viaduct should have good accessibility, and good walking space is the key to achieve spatial accessibility. The design of the space under the viaduct should form a good walking space through reasonable organization of the space, and organically connect the space under the viaduct with the surrounding environment to form an organic whole.

4.2.2. Adequate Facilities

The design of the space under the viaduct should investigate the actual needs of the surrounding residents and reasonably set the facilities, such as leisure facilities, exhibition facilities, service facilities, games and fitness facilities, lighting facilities, etc. The design of space under the viaduct bridge should also consider the space use needs of different time periods and different people, create multi-functional public living places, and improve the use efficiency and vitality of space under the viaduct.

4.2.3. Strengthen Landscape Construction

The space under the viaduct is dark due to the long transverse span of the bridge deck. At the same time, the train passing on the viaduct causes serious noise pollution. Therefore, shade loving plants can be planted to meet the requirements of artistry and aesthetics, and to enhance the interaction between people and the greening environment, so as to improve the overall vitality of space and improve the quality of space under the bridge.

4.3. Design Scheme

Through investigation and analysis of the actual use of the surrounding residents, this paper divided the space under the bridge into three parts: vegetable market area, trade area and activity area for the elderly, and discussed the reuse design of the space under the viaduct (: Figure 6, : Figure 7).

Figure 6. Functional partition of space under the viaduct.

Figure 7. Bird’s eye view of the overall design.

4.3.1. Market Area

This area is the main pedestrian passage leading to the outside of Hua ' an li, with a large flow of people during the rush hour. The space under the viaduct on both sides of the entrance serves as a vehicle parking area, which lacks public facilities and has a low space utilization rate. There are many street vendors in this area, mainly selling fruits, vegetables and department stores. This paper chooses to set up a market here, which can not only solve the problem that a large number of street vendors occupy the road and affect the traffic, but also serve as a shelter from wind and rain, and facilitate the shopping needs of residents in Hua ' an li community (: Figure 8).

Figure 8. Design of market area.

4.3.2. Trade Area

The north side of Hua ' an li community is a clothing factory. Most workers in the clothing factory choose Hua ' an li as their living area. Therefore, a large number of workers commute between Hua ' an li and the clothing factory. This area is the only channel from Hua ' an li to the clothing factory. Vendors set up shops on both sides of the road without authorization, which resulted in chaotic functional zoning, congestion and chaos. Therefore, this area is selected to set up the trade zone, which can not only alleviate the problem of traffic congestion, but also transform the space under the viaduct into a public space with commercial value, stimulate the lost space and activate the vitality of the site (: Figure 9).

Figure 9. Design of the trade zone.

4.3.3. Elderly Activity Area

There are many indoor activity centers in Hua ' anli community. At the same time, there is Evergreen Park in the north of Hua ' an li, but the distance is relatively far, which requires a 15-minute walk. Compared with the elderly in Hua ' an li residential area, the distance is too far and the spatial accessibility is poor. This area has a large radiation radius, high spatial accessibility, and a good view. Therefore, this area was selected as the activity space for the elderly to provide a public space for rest and communication (: Figure 10).

Figure 10. Design of the elderly activity area.

5. Research Prospect

This paper investigates and analyzes the space under the viaduct, and puts forward the corresponding design principles, design strategies and design schemes. The utilization of space under viaduct can be considered not only from the perspective of space use, but also from the perspective of the overall environment of urban space. The following suggestions are proposed for the utilization of space under viaduct in the future urban development:

5.1. Relevant Departments of the City Government Coordinate with Each Other to Formulate a Unified Plan

The construction of urban viaduct has a far-reaching impact on urban space. At the beginning of design and construction, not only the traffic efficiency and construction quality, but also the influence on the public space around the viaduct should be considered. During the research phase, government departments can share information on the status of the space and provide a basis for the design scheme. In the design scheme stage, the viaduct and the space under the viaduct can be mutually negotiated to improve the design scheme, and the multi-functional composite utilization of the viaduct and the space under the viaduct can be created to give full play to its maximum value. In the use phase, the corresponding management specification can be specified to realize the maximum utilization of the space under the bridge.

5.2. Combined with the Reality, Discusses the Space Utilization Mode under Different Situations

The city is a complex and organic space, and the utilization of space under viaduct should be designed according to its specific geographical location, spatial characteristics, climatic conditions, relevant policies and public needs, and utilized according to different situations. For examplein the region of the lack of parking spaces can plan to meet the parking demand for parking lot, In areas with dense population but lack of corresponding public space, they can be planned as leisure and entertainment places; In areas where there is a relative lack of greening, it can be planned as a park; in the region with superior location conditions, commercial facilities can be planned to meet residents' shopping needs.

5.3. Strengthen Infrastructure Construction

Good space environment can improve the space utilization rate of the space under the viaduct. The utilization of space under viaduct should strengthen the construction of infrastructure, improve the function of space under viaduct and increase its attraction. For example, the construction of toilets, seats, sports equipment, lamps and lighting, and health service facilities can provide a safe, comfortable and functional space under the viaduct, improve the use efficiency of the space under the viaduct, and attract residents to use and communicate.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: F.L.; Methodology: F.L.; S.Y.T.; Software: S.Y.T.; Validation: F.L.; S.Y.T.; Formal analysis: F.L.; Investigation: F.L.; Resources: F.L.; Data Curation: S.Y.T.; Writing – original draft preparation: F.L.; Writing – review and editing: F.L.; Visualization: F.L.; S.Y.T.; Supervision: F.L.; S.Y.T.; Project administration: F.L.; S.Y.T.; Funding acquisition: F.L.; S.Y.T.

Funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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