Art and Design, Vol. 2, Issue 3, Sep  2019, Pages 124-133; DOI: 10.31058/j.ad.2019.23012 10.31058/j.ad.2019.23012

Talking About the Enlightenment of Modern Art School to Design

, Vol. 2, Issue 3, Sep  2019, Pages 124-133.

DOI: 10.31058/j.ad.2019.23012

Zhipeng Zhang 1* , Boyuan Zhang 1

School of Art and Design, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China

Received: 27 May 2019; Accepted: 11 July 2019; Published: 5 August 2019

Abstract

The world art is like a river and lake. Many artists have opened a school in the circle of art, and even broke this circle again and again. At the beginning of the 20th century, the birth of post-impressionism declared the coming of modern art, and the modern art genre also emerged endlessly. Concept and style: Design has been a huge subject since ancient times, affecting the development of all aspects of society. This article demonstrates the influence of Picassos cubism on modernist architecture and the influence of pop art on contemporary graphic design, and argues that art is at the forefront of design.

Keywords

Modern Art School, Cubism, Modernist Architecture, Populism, Shi Deming

1. Introduction

People often put art and design on both ends of the balance to compare the relationship between the two. The face of the artistic genre in the art is the face of the whole art development. The author believes that art always walks at the front end of design, affecting the development of design. The modern art genre has been produced since the beginning of the 20th century, and its influence on today's design. It is also more obvious. This view will be discussed in detail below.

2. The Origin of A Modern Art School

Since ancient times, the meaning of the word "art"has been continuously expanded or even subverted, and its inclusive expansion has been due to numerous artistic genres. The art genre refers to the art faction composed of artists who hold the same ideological ideas, artistic concepts, and methods of creating artworks in a certain historical period. However, the formation of artistic genres is not the self-issuance of artists. The commentary, criticism or induction of art by a certain period of time is also an important motivation for the formation of art schools

Impressionism is often the beginning of modern art. At the end of the eighteenth century, the Impressionist genre opened the way for the so-called "modernity"in the field of art. The early "explorers"of Impressionism, such as Pissarro Monet, Renoir, etc., through the changes in light and color, depicting the "instant"scene of the scene exposed under different lighting conditions, free and brisk strokes, frantic unconstrained lines and colors, and The capture of light and shadow is a typical feature of Impressionist painting, and Monet's Impression Sunrise ( Figure 1 ) is its representative. But the Impressionists were not accepted at the time. The outside world satirized them as they painted, just like monkeys smeared on the canvas, criticizing them for painting with their impressions, so they were known as “Impressionists”. For modern art, the Impressionist attempt is only an introduction. In fact, French post-impressionism is the beginning of modern art. The term Post-Impressionism is proposed by British art critic Roger Frye. According to legend, in 1910, London held a "modern"French painting exhibition. At the opening of the exhibition, the name of the exhibition was not confirmed. Roger Fry, as curator, had no choice but to make a decision. Impressionism comes to name the exhibition. The vocabulary of this interim decision was used to describe artists who had followed the Impressionist and later tried to get rid of and oppose the Impressionists to form their own independent style. In fact, post-impressionism is not a group or faction, and there is no unified way of creation and style. The reason why these people are called post-impressionists is to distinguish them from impressionism. ["100 Important Schools Affecting the World", Li Wei, Wuhan Publishing House, 2009]

Although the Impressionist subverts the traditional way of painting, the painter goes from indoors to outdoors, depicting the fleeting scenery in nature, but after all, it is based on the loyalty to depicting the object, while post-impressionism focuses on the artist's subjective feelings and advocates integration. The emotions of oneself are freed from the traditional painting mode of the object of reproduction. Paul Cezanne, known as the father of modern painting, incorporates his own understanding of the structure of things in his paintings, creating an absolute painting;the famous Van Gogh is also decorated with brilliant colors and thick colors. Strokes express their personal feelings on the canvas. The post-impressionism innovation inspired many art genres, and a large number of modern art schools have sprung up, such as "Cubism", "Expressionism", "Fauves", "Style", "Pop Art""The names of the art genres are familiar. They all break people's understanding of traditional aesthetics, affect people's judgments on beauty, and constantly give new ideas in form and vision.

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Figure 1. Impression·Sunrise (Image from the network).

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Figure 2. Cézanne's Still Life (Image from the network).

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Figure 3. Van Gogh's "Sunflower"(Image from the network).

3. The Influence of Picasso Cubism on Modernist Architectural Design

Even those who don't often come into contact with art must have heard the name of Pablo Picasso, the most important master of the 20th century, who left about 37,000 works in the 20th century. At the beginning he created Cubism, and his artistic concepts and expressions have been deeply influenced by future generations. Cubism is one of the most artistic creations that Picasso has experienced in his life, and of course the most important one. The various Picasso collections currently published include his early works, most of which are classified according to style: Steinen (Lautrec), stained glass, blue, circus, pink, classical, "African", original cubism, cubism (analytic cubism and integrated cubism) and so on. Before 1907, Picasso came to Gosor from Spain from Paris, and because of the outbreak of typhoid, he hurried back to Paris, and soon after he returned to Paris, the creation of a painting became a turning point in his artistic career. The almond eyes of the African mask and the elongated egg-shaped face left a deep impression on Picasso. He painted his imaginary characters in his paintings, but it is undeniable that these characters must have received his travels before Impact. The shape of the mask, the transformation of the visual reality into an abstract form, and the idea of simultaneously expressing multiple angles, the combination of the three created the painting that symbolizes the beginning of cubism - "Avignon Girl"

Figure 4. Pablo Picasso, Victoria Charles, Anatoly Pandok Sik, translated by Zhao Hui, People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 2016.

This new art form will also accompany the entire art of Picasso in the future. Career, cubism is divided into multiple periods, but the summary of its common features, we can be summarized into the following two points;(1) geometric, by observing Picasso's cubist painting we can easily find, Picasso Always use some introductory geometric figures to summarize the shape of objective things. It is influenced by Cézanne and African sculptures. It is believed that the structure itself should have certain rules, so the circle and rectangle are regarded as objective things in the picture. The carrier of the structure is applied. (2) Simultaneity, Picasso always depicts the objective things seen at different angles and different times in the same picture, breaking the fixed perspective mode in traditional painting, especially the characters in Picasso, often the front and side are simultaneously displayed. In front of us, Picasso believes that the capture of things in the human brain is always one-sided, so the way to create it is to reassemble these fragments. Simple lines and colors, "Pureness,"we use this genre name to classify Le Corbusier's work, but The form of its work deepens the influence of Cubism, and this "pureness"approach is also used in his architecture. Villa Savoy ( Figure 7 ) is a masterpiece of Le Corbusier's modernist architecture. Located in Poissy, a suburb of Paris, the Reinforced concrete structure used throughout the building is plain and simple, with simple geometric blocks. Patchwork, most of the building's façade is painted in white, and its interior space is freed from the closed, single image of the previous building space, and replaced by an open, flowing and complex building space. [On "The Influence of Picasso's Cubist Painting on Le Corbusier's Architectural Space Design", Li Sixian, Feng Tian,"Literary Life, Literary Theory", 2016] The image of architecture is differen t from all angles inside the building. Just like the characteristics of Cubism's "simultaneity", people need to integrate the architectural fragments observed from different perspectives in order to gain an understanding of the building as a whole. Frank Owen Gehry, another architect, is also known as "Picasso in the architectural world."He is a representative of deconstruction, and its architecture is designed with a unique sculptural shape. The origin of its style and the late stage of modernist architecture. He always regards the process of architectural design He is good at breaking the original form and then re-arranging and combining to create a space atmosphere of broken, mysterious, weightless and conflict. He is good at drawing inspiration from architecture. He also argues that architecture and Art should not exactly opposite. There should be a balance between architecture and art, and the style of deconstructive architecture is also influenced By cubist painting. Figure 8 is one of the representative works in the Guggenheim Museum. The whole building is made up of a group of irregular hyperboloid blocks with titanium alloy plates. Due to the northward backlighting, the main facade of the whole building is Very It is difficult to be exposed to the sun, and the hyperboloids curved in all directions can capture slight changes in the angle of incidence of sunlight, making such large-scale buildings not monotonous, and the twisted geometric blocks bring a strong mystery and instability ["Postmodernism and Architectural Design", Zhang Zhongjun, Yin Tao, "Shanxi Architecture", 2009] Picasso created a cubist painting in 1907, and in the rise of modernist architecture half a century later, including a few later In the development of The building genre, it is easier to discover the characteristics of Cubism's geometric and simultaneity., the author believes that Picasso's Cubism indirectly affects the development of archi Tectural forms after the middle of the 20th century.

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Figure 5. "Nature morte" (Image from the network).

Figure 6. "Open palm" (Image from the network).

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Figure 7. Savoy Villa (Image from the network).

Figure 8. Guggenheim Museum of Art(Image from the network).

4. The Influence of Three Populism on Contemporary Graphic Design

"Pop"is an abbreviation for "Popular,"meaning pop art, which originated in the 1950s and 1960s. After the Second World War, the design world experienced the climax of modernism and the international masters. By the end of the 1950s, the social economy had been significantly upgraded to prosperity, and modernism and internationalism were no longer satisfied. People, especially the younger generation of young people in the post-war generation of aesthetic and use needs;on the other hand, consumer behavior and consumer culture are gradually emerging, supporting advertising and the media are also in urgent need of a breakthrough development. Therefore, a group of rebellious young people in the United States launched a populist movement. They broke the current situation that the public thinks that art is unattainable. They think that art is at your fingertips, and their works are also novel and anti- The traditional look. Aady Warhol is the main initiator and representative of Pop Art. He often uses commercial posters that are everywhere in life as a single symbol, such as Marilyn Monroe's head or Campbell's canned soup, and then They repeat the arrangement, change their color, form new works, become the epitome of a certain era and phenomena, showing the confusion of people in this era of fast consumption. Compared with traditional art, Pop Art is a fast-paced art, which is also mapping the impetuous social environment. Pop art is anti-elite, anti-historical, anti-traditional, with a strong sense of drama, constantly clamoring for the masterpieces of the predecessors in the art gallery. The direct use of ready-made products and the repetition and mass production are typical features of Andy Warhol's works and the art of spectrum.

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Figure 9. Pop Art:Marilyn Monroe head portrait (Image from the network).

Looking at today's design, directly related to the word "spectrum", we can easily think of the style of the spectrum in today's interior design. Gorgeous colors, exaggerated patterns, contrasts of different materials, and rich illustrations have become the favorite style of young people. This interior design style is clearly influenced by Andy Warhol and the spectrum art movement he represents. The influence even directly used pop art as a decoration in the interior. However, Popper itself conveys emotions through graphic works, which still has a negligible influence on today's graphic design.

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Figure 10. Spectral style interior design (Image from the network).

Shi Deming is the world's most famous graphic designer. His works always outweigh the viewer's expectations. In a special way, Liu Zhizhi, an international graphic design association (AGI) member, once commented on Shi Deming, "Shi Deming It is looking for a certain 'method'and giving people the opportunity to 'make'some escape from this mediocrity. Fortunately, he has succeeded almost every time. For this reason, many people will always be grateful to Shi Deming. "[Why is my design so famous], Stefan Schmiding, Chantal Prodom, Martin Woody, Wang Yiran, China Youth Press, 2013] Shi Deming himself said "style is equal to fart In this case, the design style of his life is changeable. It is difficult for us to have a holistic induction. Here, the author extracts some works of the same characteristics of Shi Deming, and compares them with the works of the spectrum style. Figure 11 and 12 show that at the opening of an exhibition in New York, Shi Deming built a banana wall for customers Deitch Projects with 10,000 bananas, with yellow bananas on the wall and green bananas. The words "confidence brings good results"and the patterns around the text. Over time, the bananas matured and darkened, and the writing and surrounding patterns gradually disappeared. In 2008, Schmidt made a large pattern with 250,000 1 cent euro coins in Wahdrahof Square in Amsterdam ( Figure 13 ). After eight days, with the help of thousands of volunteers, coins It is divided into four groups and is placed in a square of 300 square meters in accordance with a predetermined plan. The coin constitutes a sentence that "tangles my life and makes my work better." Figure 14 and Figure 15 are short legs designed by Schmidt. The surface of the table consists of 330 compasses and upper and lower panels. The lower layer is a metal plate and the upper layer is glass. When a magnetic object moves on the table, hundreds of compasses will not. Stop turning. Figure 16 shows a device wall designed by Schmidt with tens of thousands of convenient stickers. The convenience sticker shows a different posture with the wind blown by the fan. Observing the works described above, they are all made up of ready-made products in life. Bananas, coins, compasses, and sticky notes are presented to the viewer in another interesting form through the subtle combination of artists. The transformation of ready-made products into creative elements, as a symbol unit, achieves the artistic effect that the finished product itself does not have by repeating and arraying, which is the method that has been used by the spectrum. Repeated Marilyn Monroe's head, Campbell's canned soup and repeated bananas and coins also represent the mass entertainment in this commercial society, and it is these materials that are very close to people's lives that make art and design more popular. As an anti-traditional art phenomenon that is very close to the public life, the graphic design under the influence of spectrumism has gradually penetrated into people's lives. The form of graphic design has become more and more diverse, and people have begun to pay attention to things around them. Open up the vision of designers and the public.

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Figure 11. Shi Deming works (Image from the network).

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Figure 12. Shi Deming works (Image from the network).

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Figure 13. Shi Deming works (Image from the network).

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Figure 14. Shi Deming works (Image from the network).

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Figure 15. Shi Deming works (Image from the network).

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Figure 16. Shi Deming works (Image from the network).

5. Conclusions

Art and design are often compared together and there are many differences between art and design. Art and design are different. The early art of painting is a kind of "fixed piece". The artist was hired by the church and the nobility. Then the invention of the camera liberated the artist. The artist became his master and expressed his own thought through art. Art works and artistic behaviors do not need to be read by the public;design is a work for the masses, because design works need to be used by people, need to be accepted by society, need to consider economic value, technical conditions and so on. The difference between art and design aims to bring different judgment standards. Aesthetics is one of the important criteria for evaluating design works, but art is not all beautiful. Beauty is a public phenomenon, and art is not, especially modern art. They focus on the expression of the artist. Some people say that there will be fewer and fewer people who go to the ultimate in art, and more and more people will go to design.

But art and design are not unrelated. The author believes that art always walks in the front end of design. Through the above-mentioned Picasso Cubism's influence on modernist architecture and pop art on contemporary graphic design, including the revelation of surrealism on contemporary architecture and fashion design not mentioned in this article, we can see that today's designers are always It will draw nutrition from the past art genre, especially the modernist genre with a wide variety and different forms, which will always provide more inspiration for the designer's design work. In life, we often have the works of Mondrian or Van Gogh printed on the costumes or handbags. The artists and their works have become a symbol of the trend symbols. The concepts and styles of these artistic schools have already penetrated into the public. In life, it will also cause changes in the design process that cannot be separated from the public life.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

[1] Li Wei. 100 Important Schools Affecting the World. Wuhan Publishing House, 2009.

[2] Pablo Picasso; Victoria Charles; Anatoly Pandoksik; Zhao Hui. Peoples Fine Arts Publishing House, 2016.

[3] Li Sixian; Feng Tian. On the Influence of Picassos Cubist Painting on Le Corbusiers Architectural Space Design. Literary Life, Literary Theory, 2016.

[4] Zhang Zhongjun; Yin Tao. Postmodernism and Architectural Design. Shanxi Architecture, 2009.

[5] Stefan Schmiding; Chantal Prodom; Martin Woody; Wang Yiran. Why is my design so famous? China Youth Press, 2013.