Art and Design, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Dec  2019, Pages 134-146; DOI: 10.31058/j.ad.2019.24013 10.31058/j.ad.2019.24013

A Study on the Distribution of Gold Deposits and Gold Mining Policy in Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty

, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Dec  2019, Pages 134-146.

DOI: 10.31058/j.ad.2019.24013

Han Lu 1* , Lui Cheng 1

1 School of History, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Received: 15 July 2019; Accepted: 15 August 2019; Published: 20 September 2019

Abstract

The Qing Dynasty was in the late stage of Chinese feudal society, and was a feudal autocratic regime established by Chinese minorities. In the early period of Qing governments rule, there was a rare prosperous situation in feudal society, that is, the prosperous period of Kang and Qian Dynasty. At this time, Chinas society was unprecedented stable, unified and strong, which provided favorable conditions for the development of gold mining industry in Xinjiang to a certain extent. But this prosperity and stability did not last. With the increasingly decadent and declining of the Qing government, the gold mining industry in Xinjiang also suffered a heavy blow and gradually declined. But the golden period of prosperity and stability is short after all. After Emperor Jiaqing, the Qing government became increasingly corrupt and incompetent, and the gold mining industry in Xinjiang also suffered a heavy blow and gradually declined. In the first half of this paper, the graphs and data in statistics, the maps in geography and the pictures in sociology are used to show the readers intuitively and vividly the rich gold deposits in Xinjiang and the tortuous course of the development of gold mining industry in Xinjiang. In the latter part of this paper, the historical materialism method is used to explore the reasons why the rich gold deposits in Xinjiang failed to develop in the end. The study of this paper has certain reference significance for the development of gold mining in Xinjiang today, and also helps people all over the world to understand the economy of Xinjiang.

Keywords

Xinjiang Gold Mine, Qing Government, Distribution Characteristics, Policy

1. Introduction

Since the western-han dynasty, Xinjiang has been called into the western regions by the ancient people, which means the territory of western China. The title of Xinjiang originated from the Qing Dynasty, as the exclusive appellation of the western regions, the word Xinjiang has also undergone a rather long process of evolution. First, during the reign of Qianlong (1736-1795), the Qing government finally defeated the rebellion of Junggar tribe and brought Xinjiang under the rule of Qing Dynasty. In 1762, the Qing government established general Yili to exercise jurisdiction over the westernregions. The Qing Dynasty changed the western regions name to Xinjiang to prove that its political and military abilities were far superior to those of its predecessors. At this time, the word Xinjiang was not a proper noun, but a general term for many areas, referring to some areas newly conquered by the Qing government, including Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan and other places [1]. Secondly, until the early years of Daoguang(1821-1850), the book for a brief history of the western frontier was compiled, the book reflected the style and characteristics of Xinjiang in this system and general Yili presented it to the emperor. The emperor himself wrote a preface to the book and named it emperor's brief introduction to Xinjiang, the word Xinjiang became a proper noun in the western regions. Last, from the literal point of view, Xinjiang should refer to a new territory. This was indeed a newly conquered territory for the rulers of the Qing Dynasty, but, in the late period of the Qing Dynasty, the word Xinjiang had a new meaning. Since the 19th century, the rule of the Qing government has become increasingly decadent, leading to the decline of national strength. At the same time, Kokand state and Tsarist Russia invaded and occupied parts of Xinjiang. Subsequently, under the leadership of Zuo zongtang with a patriotic general of the Qing Dynasty, the occupied area of Xinjiang recovered rapidly. In order to consolidate its rule, the Qing government accepted Zuo zongtang's proposal to establish a province in Xinjiang in 1884. Since then, the word Xinjiang has a new meaning, that is to say, Xinjiang has been China's inherent territory since ancient times. Because this is a newly recovered lost land, the new name of Xinjiang has the intention of returning its original place, and the new name is full of the feelings of patriotic generals who recover lost land. Geographically speaking, Xinjiang is located in the central part of eurasia in northwest China. The Xinjiang has a total area of about 1.66 million square kilometers, accounting for 1/6 of the total land area of China, bordering with Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, India and Afghanistan. The land border of Xinjiang is about 5600 kilometers long, accounting for 1/4 of the national land border line. The Xinjiang has the longest land border and the largest neighboring country in China. It is an important town on the land silk road. The Xinjiang has a beautiful scenery, a long history and rich resources. There are towering snow capped mountains, shifting desert, desolate gobi, gurgling rivers and buried countless mineral resources. The Xinjiang has a large variety of mineral resources and rich reserves. It can be a complete range, large amount of storage, widely distributed , known as jinshan, jade river and coalhole oil. The Xinjiang is famous for its rich mineral resources.

Since the middle of the nineteenth century, tourists and explorers from all over the world have traveled in Xinjiang, and they all agree that china has the largest mineral resources in the world, Xinjiang has the most minerals in China [2]. In ancient times, Xinjiang was rich in gold and white jade, which was called the home of gold and jade. Among all kinds of metals, gold is the most expensive metal, known as the king of metals. According to the geological data obtained, among the 88 counties and cities in Xinjiang, 59 counties and cities have gold resources and more than 270 gold deposits [3]. As we all know, gold is a precious metal, it has been playing an important role in human economic activities. It was widely used by the Chinese people as a currency in ancient times for the purchase of various goods, such as historical records of tianya book. With the rapid development of economy, gold is also used more widely. It can be used as expensive decorations and jewelry. At the same time, it also plays an important role in industry. Obviously, Xinjiang gold mining industry is gradually being taken seriously. There are many early records of gold in Xnjiang in Chinese ancient books. According to the biography of western regions in han books, wuyi decorated his scepter with gold and silver. Gold is abundant in the country of qiuci were reported by the biography of western regions in tang books. As early as before the western-han dynasty, there were records of central asian businessmen bringing various products to the western regions in exchange for gold, and gold mining in Xinjiang had a history of at least 200 years, approximately equivalent to the Qing Dynasty Qianjia period [4]. Thus, Qing Dynasty was an important period for the development of gold mining industry in Xinjiang. After the Qing Dynasty unified Xinjiang, mineral exploitation developed rapidly, especially the coal mining industry, which is closely related to the lives of the military and civilians in Xinjiang. Xinjiang began to set up factories to mine gold during the Qianlong period, there were two main forms of mining, including official mining and private mining.

However, the late development of gold deposits in Xinjiang resulted in the collapse of these gold factories after the war of Tongzhi. In addition, there are few studies on gold mining in Xinjiang. The general distribution and characteristics of gold deposits in Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty are lack of corresponding summary. The problem is that there is a lack of in-depth analysis and research on the Qing government's gold mining policy, how do people develop and mine gold in in different periods?What is the impact of gold mining in that period on the country's economy? How do they manage miners? These are all research topics that we need to solve. In this paper, it mainly study the distribution, mining technology and management of gold deposits in Xinjiang of China during the Qing Dynasty, and provide reference and help for modern human gold mining.

2. Analysis Policy

2.1. Distribution and Characteristic of Gold Producing Areas in Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty

Through the investigation of Xinjiang unique topography, the image of the scholars can be summarized as three mountains and two basins, namely from the north to the south in Xinjiang, there are Altaishan mountain, Tianshan mountain and Kunlun mountain. there is a golden record in the history of the Qing Dynasty into every mountain. Xinjiang gold producing areas are widely distributed and luxuriant in the Qing Dynasty, as far as the historical data are concerned, the distribution of gold in Xinjiang is included in the following Table 1, Table 2.

Table 1. Gold (northern Tianshan Mountains, tarbagatay).

Region

Survey

Historical sources

Di hua

county

Located in Dihua eastern Bogda mountain, Dihuazhou, Donggou, Shuixigou, Poplar ditch, Spit embroidery, Toutun, Camel neck, Daxigou gold factory, there are about 600 gold prospectors.

A brief account of the three states, volume 9.

Qing Gaozong record, volume 755.

Changji

county

A gold factory had been set up in the Luo river in Qianlong forty-seven years (1782) including three Tuen mun plant, Hutubi factory at the same time the gold have produced in Changji Nanshan and Beishan.

Brief introduction of three states, volume, 9 Xinjiang district industrial two, volume

28.

Hutubi

county

In qianlong thirty-seven years (1772) years, according to historical records, it can the two lines of the Kuitun river and the Hutubi river be drawn back. Dig gold is not smooth and continue to garrison. This shows that the gold produced here is relatively small.

Qing gaozong record, volume, 910. Local chronicles of

Hutubi.

Sui lai

county

The alchemy plants mainly were Ulan wusu, Bo luo tun ancient factory, Mouth gate factory and Da zi bridge factory, the staff is about 100 people.

Xinjiang district·industrial two, volume, 29.

Qitai county

The government arrests 200 workers in the gold factory, which proves that the area was rich in gold.

The Qing renzong Dynasty record, volume, 290. Local chronicles of Qitai county.

The town is west hall Zhili hall of Hami

According to history records Li zhen xi zhi (department of black water Hami Barkol) in between (200 miles west of town hall), it produces red gold, gold particles such as fine spinning. Because of the war, many years of exploitation of the gold mine stopped production, and now in the original gold mine often find small pieces of gold.

Xinjiang district·industrial two, volume, 29.

Local chronicles in the west hall of the town Qing gaozong record, volume, 290.

Kurdish

Su zhili

hall

The gold fields were mainly Jinchang kizilchage rankine factory and Kuitun factory. In the Qianlong and Jiaqing, there were 290 gold husbands at Kizilcha ge lang factory. In the period of the Emperor Daoguang and the emperor of Xianfeng, the mine reached more than 20. In Qianlong 36 years, there were 210 workers in Kuitun gold factory.

Western waterways and local records of the hall of cours Ursula

Yili prefecture

Ningyuan

ounty

The gold fields were mainly Yoto kesi gou gold mine, Hushen dakesu gold mine and Kekesu hot springs gold mine. These were all placer gold deposits.

Local chronicles of Yili prefecture and Xinjiang industrial district, volume, 29.

Zhili Hall of tacheng

Tacheng zhili hall was mainly distributed in the Kizu river, Hui river wulantuo dalda, Hutu mountain. In the Hutu mountains, up to 100 gold aspects, rich in mineral resources, there were many mines in the Qianlong, Jiaqing and Daoguang period. Mineral ding tens of thousands, Tongzhi Jiazi abolished chaos. During the reign of Guangxu, China and Russia jointly organized and bao new company was founded in 1903, and bao new company was disbanded in 1906.

Local records of Zhili hall in Tacheng and Xinjiang records.

Table 2. Nanjiang gold mine (South of Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains).

Region

Survey

Historical sources

Yanqi

Prefecture

Gold field were mainly distributed in the north Yanqi 450 miles west of the pearl ledousi, gold field were red Sakin factory, Donald jinchang, Outta jin gou factory and Kizilcha ge lang factory.

Qing xuanzong record, volume, 755.

Yanqi township

government records.

Yutian county

Gold field originated in Ye erqiang bodeer, Qian zhute, Color calling cooley et al. Gold field were Sura kewajin factory (Daikin factory) with gold grains such as soybean in Guangxu 29 years for the administration of Kabashanjin factory, poly (small gold factory), Agetakekejin factory and slaughter hill gold factory. These were large petalgold.

Xinjiang district·

industrial two, volume

29.

Yanqi township

government records.

新疆清代地图_image_file_copy_4副本

Figure 1. Maps of Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty.

Figure 2. Maps of modern Xinjiang.

Due to the huge area of Xinjiang, in the Qing Dynasty and modern times, the jurisdiction of Xinjiang has changed, as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 . Figure 1 shows maps of Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty, Figure 2 shows maps of modern Xinjiang. By observing maps of Qing Dynasty and modern Xinjiang, the location of gold deposits in Qing Dynasty Xinjiang can be roughly determined.

As Altai did not belong to the jurisdiction of Xinjiang in the Qing Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of the counsellor's minister of Khovd until 1919. Yangzengxin was placed in the territory of Xinjiang, therefore, it is not included in the schedule.The characteristics of gold distribution in Xinjiang are reflected in the following three aspects.

From the above two charts, we can see that the gold mines are almost all around the three mountains system in Xinjiang, and its number, distribution, scale, and number of people can be regarded as the highest in the country. Moreover, due to the different natural conditions, the northern and southern Xinjiang have formed their own characteristics. First, in the distribution of gold deposits, the gold deposits in northern Xinjiang are mainly concentrated in Tacheng area and north and south of Tal Baha Taishan. Baerluke mountain is a famous gold producing area in Tacheng area. On the more than 1600 square kilometers of mount hutu, there is gold everywhere. According to the historical description, in the hutu mountains, reservoir minerals have a length of one hundred, tiny gold particles gather, narrow and shallow depth are different. The gold deposits are connected to the hard rock layer, so these are called stone gold [5].

In addition, in other areas of northern Xinjiang, there are sporadic gold deposits distributed in the dozens of areas, such as Tianshan mountains, Yili, Qitai and other areas. The distribution of gold deposits is scattered and widely distributed. The gold deposits in southern Xinjiang are mainly concentrated in Yanqi and Yutian.

Secondly, from the geological structure of gold mine, the gold mining area in northern Xinjiang is mostly forest, grassland or meadow cover. Gold is mainly sand grain gold, followed by mountain gold.

The sand gold also is known as bran pidgeon like the shape of fine copper shape, which occurs mostly in gravel in low riverbed or piedmont areas. The southern Xinjiang is opposite, mostly distributed in arid mountainous areas, mainly with mountain gold, and most of them are large petal gold, while sand gold is auxiliary. Mountain gold also known as vein gold, occurs in quartz veins.

The main reason for this difference is that the climate is different between the north and the south.

Although the temperature in northern Xinjiang is low and cold, there is a large mountain gap in the west of Zhungeer in Altai mountain. The western regions are also prevailing in the northwest wind, so the cold and wet air currents in the arctic ocean and the Atlantic can enter here, this leads to water vapor and precipitation, rainfall is slightly more abundant. Precipitation, chemical elements and microorganisms in the soil effect, this is conducive to the formation of placer gold. The water erosion and formation of mountain uplift zone can precipitate accumulation of placer gold. The temperature in southern Xinjiang is high. At the same time, the temperature is low in northern Xinjiang, such as Tacheng area, Altai mountains and the Tianshan mountains.

Mountains are tightly blocked, the cold air currents in the arctic ocean and the Atlantic, and the

Humid air flow in the India ocean cannot enter the southern Xinjiang, therefore, there is little rainfall and dry climate, and the gold deposits are mostly massive. Third, from the mining situation, we can attach importance to northern Xinjiang and despise the south Xinjiang. The number of gold factories in northern Xinjiang are much larger than that of southern Xinjiang, and the scales are also larger. Through detailed records of gold rush, it is found that the gold mine in northern Xinjiang is better developed. The number of gold plants and the scale of production in southern Xinjiang are small. The location of gold plant and the time of mining are very rough. It can be seen that the gold mining focuses in northern Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty. Figure 3 shows a gold mineralization in habahe, Figure 4 shows a gold mineralization in Ziyi, Figure 5 shows a gold mineralization in the northern margin of Altyn Tagh, Figure 6 shows an old mineralization in Ku Bu Sujin mineralization.

Figure 3. A gold mineralization in Habahe.

Figure 4. A gold mineralization in Ziyi.

Figure 5. A gold mineralization in the northern margin of Altyn Tagh.

Figure 6. A gold mineralization in Ku Bu Sujin mineralization.

2.2. Production and Management of Gold Mining Industry in Xinjiang in the Qing Dynasty

Xinjiang is rich in gold resources since ancient times, however, the gold mining industry did not develop in large scale. The first half of eighteenth century, the emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty conquered Junggar, Mongolia, the size of Uygur and Zhuo Xinjiang rebellion. These measures ended the long-term division of Xinjiang and completed the unification of Xinjiang.

In 1762, the military government system was established, which began with the unification of the army and the government, and began to carry out the long-term and effective management of Xinjiang. After unification of Xinjiang, the Qing government began to open up wasteland, established pastures, exploited mining and developed trade for heal the wounds of war. Gold mining is an important income of the Qing government in the exploitation of mineral resources, which make up for the lack of financial revenue, so the gold mining industry in the Qing Dynasty has entered the golden age of development. Here, we can carry out different mining policies according to the different historical periods of the Qing Dynasty, and divide the development of the gold mining industry in Xinjiang into two periods:

2.3. Qianlong, Jiajing, Daoguang, Xianfeng Period (One Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty-Nine to One Thousand Eight Hundred and Sixty-Two)

At this stage, the political situation of the country tended to be unified and stable. The Qing government adopted the attitude of support and encouragement to the gold mining industry, which provided favorable conditions for the development of the gold mining industry. The smooth flow of traffic has strengthened the connection between the central government and Xinjiang.The technology of gold mining in the mainland was introduced into Xinjiang. The Qing government adopted large-scale garrison soldiers, reclaimed wasteland and sent prisoners in Xinjiang, at the same time, many businessmen flocked to Xinjiang. This provided ample labor for large-scale mining of gold in Xinjiang. During this period, a large number of gold factories were built up, such as Tihua seven gold factory, Changji metal factory, Sui Lai Jin factory et al. The total number of these factories were more than 60, the factories were set up by the government. Due to the differences between the northern and southern regions, the Qing government adopted different policies towards the north and the south. In the pastoral areas of northern Xinjiang, the population was relatively scarce, and the feudal ruling institutions were relatively weak. Due to the wide distribution of gold deposits in the north of Xinjiang and the shortage of gold mining time, the Qing government mainly solved the problem of mobilizing the enthusiasm of local people, solving the problem of gold mining labor force and improving production efficiency, and taking some measures in Qianlong forty-seven years. These measures were as follows: I. every fifty people diged gold to set up a division, constrained guest people between the entry and inspection at monthly payment of gold each class matters. II. The gold factory director took fifty passengers, paid three classes of gold per month, and paid the dues at the end of each month. III. A month later, classes, production, and so on, the results of Yu Jin presented to the conductor. If there was no eye sight, it was private gold. IV. There were nine new and old Karen who used strict checks to prevent theft in a series of rape bandits.

V. The book was chosen by our bureau, which was carried out by the porters who were responsible for the gold mining [6].

In the southern part of Xinjiang, based on local conditions, the government took the following measures: I. Each class leader of the gold factory received fifty guests and issue tickets, and each student paid three points of course fee every month. II. The work was handed in every month, the director of the course could only sell the rest of the money to be tested. If you did not have a ticket, you would be punished with private money. III. The old and new, Karen, a total of nine was stricted inspection. In case of leakage, the measures prevented bandits. From these measures, it was not hard to carry out for Qing government in the northern Xinjiang. The practice was based on gang organization and listen to mining by the people. In particular, gold miners had high degree of freedom, strong mobility, freedom to come and go, and were responsible for their own profits and losses. In addition to paying taxes to the government, the savings were freely traded. As for the Qing government, it did not take any responsibility for the financial situation of the gold factory, but only played the role of organizing supervision and accepting lessons. The result was to attract a large number of out-of-town bankrupt farmers, small businessmen and handicraft industry could be the freshman of Xinjiang gold industry.

It was easy to attract some criminals to be driven by the interests. They secretly excavated gold mines and took bribes, which caused losses to the country. This can be fully proved in the historical materials of Qing Dynasty. The locals survived by planting land and gold mining. Gold mining had many advantages, such as high efficiency, high risk and strong labor intensity, which requires some technology. So most of them were reluctant to engage in gold mining. In southern Xinjiang, it was an agricultural area with a relatively dense population, there were strict feudal order and a long period of gold mining. The Qing government have taken the corresponding measures: pedants and placer gold are very rich, when emperor Qianlong has gold lessons of light separated [7].

Gold was produced and tribute was paid in every year. The local feudal rulers and dukes were assigned to the local Uygur peasants for tax at mu by Qing government. In order to enable farmers to enter gold mining, farmers formed mining and smelting.

2.4. Reign of Emperor Guangxu (One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy-Eight to One Thousand Nine Hundred and Eleven)

In this period, the western countries launched the first Opium War, the second Opium War, the Sino French War and the Sino Japanese War. The invasion of China by the eight countries forced the Qing government to sign a series of unequal treaties, such as the Nanjing treaty, the Beijing treaty and the Tianjin treaty et al. From the Opium Wars and the first Sino-Japanese War since 1840s to Japanese aggression against China in the 1930s, China had been subjected to the massacres and savage economic exploitations inflicted by eastern and western big power. The social nature of China has changed radically, and the society has gradually reduced from an independent feudal state to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. At that time, the Qing government became a tool for imperialism to rule China in order to maintain its shaky rule.

The spread of war reparations to provinces has made their finances increasingly tense. The provinces are unwilling to give financial support to Xinjiang, which is also responsible for sharing war reparations. In the face of the new problems, the Qing government tried to save money in the finance [8]. It was one of the effective measures to expand and manage the gold mining industry in Xinjiang. On the other hand, the Qing government's westernization movement was held in in the western countries.

Advanced technology and machinery were introduced by the government, and a number of overseas students were sent. To a certain extent, this provided technology and talents for further development of Xinjiang's gold mining industry, so that Xinjiang's gold mining industry began to use machine production, and improved production efficiency.

The Qing government established the province of Xinjiang in 1884. In 1887, the government formally abolished the berk system and reduced personal dependence. In order to remove the disadvantages of the early gold mining industry, the government maximized the enthusiasm of farmers, restored and developed the gold mining industry destroyed during the war, and made the gold mining industry develop synchronously in north and south Xingjiang. The gold mining industry was transformed into a means of making a living for the people to choose voluntarily. In addition to the official run, the gold mining industry in Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty also adopted various forms of official supervision and business operation.

The following was a case study of Hetian and Tacheng Jinchang. I. Hetian gold factory. After the construction of Xinjiang province, Liu jintang ordered to set up a gold bureau and actively engage in mining business in order to ensure the normal production. The 49 Uygur rich families were the factory heads, they made 50 gold collar workers. They brought their own grain and tools, and officially resumed mining. This should be a good thing for the rich and the people, they gave up their cottage house, it was forced into the mountains and fled to hide. Instead of apportionment to gain profits, they began to urge households to stop at gold households and then force them to help them. There was no one who was not a gold merchant in a village. In view of the above situation, in 1887, the government decided to draw lessons from the bureau, which was bought by the county officials, people called it government-run and civilian-run.

After the reform, there were some malpractices, the local officials and the villagers'associations were often deducted from the market, so the gold households concealed the private sale in 1902. The government set up a company to collect the company's shares, including poly, baoxi, bayuan and baoxing with four factories. The products were smelted and sold to Beijing, Shanghai and other places. By 1904, the effect was not significant and the operation was stopped. People had to adopt pricing and purchasing methods to deal with gold mining industry.

II. Tacheng gold factory. Tacheng's hutu mountain gold mine was destroyed because of war, and Xinjiang was still unable to start digging after it was put into the province.

In 1897, Russian businessman moke wen was hired by Rao yingqi, a Xinjiang governor, to rent factories in the Hutu mountains. It was agreed that China and Russia would jointly invest in China and Russia for general funds and adopt new methods to mine. Due to excessive cost, the gold factory was suspended in 1902. From the above two cases, it can see that the gold mining policy in this period is essentially different from that in Qianlong and Jiaqing period. During this period, workers should not distribute jobs but hire workers who sell their labour force. Labor products began to participate in market exchange, and the form of gold factories tended to diversify. The management mode of modern capitalism began to be adopted.

3. The Cause of the Decline of the Gold Mining Industry in Xinjiang

The Xinjiang gold mine was rich in reserves, after the Qing government built its own province, it abolished the old and backward feudal production mode, and adopted the western new method for mining, the gold mining in Xinjiang should be developed rapidly. However, in the historical data we find that it is contrary to what we want. Since the adoption of the new law, the gold mining industry in Xinjiang has achieved little success. Some of them are unable to make ends meet and adopt old methods of forced apportionment. For example, the gold mine in Hetian area is not stable, its daily profits are divided into fractions, nothing is gained. What is the reason? Zeng wenwu reported the reason in the history of Chinese management of western regions [9].

It is summarized the following: I. Traffic inconvenience. Gold deposits in Xinjiang are relatively dispersed and mostly distributed in hilly and miasma areas, in addition, Xinjiang's transportation development lags behind other regions of china, gold deposits in Xinjiang are difficult to transport.

II. Lack of labour. Xinjiang is a vast and sparsely populated region, with ethnic minorities as the main group, and some of the han nationality have migrated to Xinjiang through various forms.

The main labor force undertaking the gold rush industry is the han nationality, because the minorities mainly depend on animal husbandry for their livelihood. The Qing government mainly increased the number of workers in two ways, one is to increase the remuneration of gold prospectors, the other is to force the worker to engage in gold prospecting.

The former increases the cost of gold mining, while the latter will inevitably lead to workers fleeing or the phenomenon of private excavation by civilians has repeatedly occurred. III. Technological backwardness and obsolete gold panning equipment. In order to reduce the cost of gold mining, gold mining tools are extremely primitive and simple, mostly a pair of wooden beds, shovel and dustpan, etc. And the old method of artificial mining is widely used. Under such conditions, the working environment of gold miners is extremely bad, and the efficiency of gold mining is extremely low. For example, in one year , only about 3 kg of broken gold was collected at the headwaters of Kuitun river and Hutubi river, afterwards, it can only be abolished [10]. (Calculating formula: ). IV. Long-term lack of funds for gold mining. Due to the influence of climate and environment in Xinjiang, the gold mining period in Xinjiang is greatly shortened, in other words, except for the time of winter and flood disasters, there are only five or six months left for gold mining in a year. In addition, the gold mining industry invested more and earned less. The Qing government was gradually in a wavering attitude towards gold mining, and was much stricter in the management of gold mining. It is different from the investment-oriented coal mines, gold mines are mainly managed by the government or supervised by the people, employees are employed to excavate and strictly control the people's private mining. These reasons are the important reasons why Xinjiang's gold mining industry has not been fully developed, but these reasons are only superficial and do not involve the essence of the problem. The root cause is the social nature of China's semicolonial and semifeudal society. Since the Opium War, China has gradually become a semicolonial and semifeudal society. The concrete manifestation is that the people are subjected to the double oppression of the feudal decadent forces in their own country and the foreign aggressive forces. The sovereignty of china's territory, judicature and diplomacy have been seriously destroyed. Although it is still an independent state in form, it has gradually become the appendage of the western powers. Among the foreign aggressive forces, Russia has the greatest impact on Xingjiang's gold mining industry. Because it not only encroaches on vast territory of our country, but also intensifies the plunder of gold resources in Xinjiang, which constitutes a direct blow to the gold mining industry in Xinjiang. Russia has always regarded China as a piece of fat to be slaughtered arbitrarily[11]. As early as the 18th century before the Qing government unified Xinjiang, Russia, which was in the period of colonial expansion, had known the news of gold production in Xinjiang, the Russian czar also sent people to preliminarily explore the basic situation of gold deposits in Xinjiang.

According to the confession of Russian invader babkov, in the upper reaches of the Yenisei river, which belongs to the field of China, as early as 1730, there have been Russian gold mining owners [12]. After the Opium War, Russia intensified its aggression against China. Russia successively seized a large number of gold deposits in Xinjiang, mongolia and northeast China in the form of Sino-Russian "joint venture". In Hetian, Tacheng, Altai and other places in Xinjiang, czarist Russia inspects resources everywhere to search for, plunder and exploit gold deposits. In only half a year, Tsarist Russia got more than 500 liang (25kg ) gold in Tacheng gold mine, Xinjiang [13]. Until the Guangxu period, Russia was still exploring gold deposits in Xinjiang. Under the feudal system, it was very difficult to introduce and adopt western advanced technology and equipment on a large scale because of the authoritarian conservatism and backwardness of the feudal rulers.

Even though there were some changes in gold mining technology and equipment during the Guangxu period, the budding of capitalism appeared the social character is still old-fashioned and backward, which meaned that both feudal management and the ruling class had been not changed. In ancient China, feudal management was formalistic, overstaffed and strictly controlled the life of workers.

All these disadvantages greatly reduced the production efficiency of gold mining industry. The Qing government represents the interests of the landlord class, which will inevitably affect the two major factors of the sustainable development of gold mining, namely, capital and labor force.

Especially in the late Qing Dynasty, the Qing government was weak and incompetent, and became a tool and agent for the foreign rule of China. The motive of developing the gold mining industry was to maintain its rule. The income of gold rush was to repay a large number of war reparations. Even if some products are extracted, these products and interests are either arbitrarily deducted by the landlord class or sent to the western powers as compensation. In the government-run gold factories, workers suffer heavy oppression because they fear that the gold sands dug in the factories are not enough to pay the taxes imposed by the government, so they flee from the government-run gold factories and choose to dig privately, Even if the Qing Dynasty clearly stipulated that all private gold diggers should be severely punished [14].

Extreme lack of labour and the gold mining factory also has no funds to regenerate. In the end, the gold factory could not continue

4. Conclusions

In summary, during the whole historical period of the Qing Dynasty, the gold mining industry in Xinjiang experienced a tortuous course of development. Firstly, a period of rapid development began in the reign of Qianlong, but this trend did not continue, and then declined rapidly in the turmoil of Tongzhi. The fundamental reason for the rapid development of gold mining industry in Xinjiang was the unification and independence of China. At that time, Chinese society was in a period of national prosperity and people's peace.

Naturally, the Qing government could invest more manpower, material and financial resources to develop the gold mining industry in Xinjiang , and promote its rapid development. Through the above discussion, it also have a clear understanding of the reasons for the decline of the gold mining industry at the end of the Qing Dynasty, one is the decadent and backward feudal system;the other is foreign aggression. The former is the root cause of the decline of gold mining industry in Xinjiang, while the latter acts as an accelerator. At this time, China's war raged for years, people's lives were suffering, and the Qing government became corrupt. The Qing goverment had no time to worry about Xinjiang's gold mining industry, which had nothing to do with people's livelihood, and it could only survive and die on its own. But what we should pay more attention to is that in the whole development process of gold mining in Xinjiang, even in the golden period of its development, Xinjiang's gold mining has not been able to achieve substantial development, nor can it bring the Qing Dynasty such benefits as jade. From this we can easily find a the law of historical development:Xinjiang's gold mining economy is a part of China's backward and decadent feudal economy, so although there is abundant gold in Xinjiang. It has never been fully developed, no one can stop the historical trend of the gradual decline of the feudal system, so the final decline of gold mining industry in Xinjiang is also a historical necessity. It can also be said that rise and fall of the gold mining industry in the Qing Dynasty reflected the historical inevitability of the decadent feudal dynasty.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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