Waters, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Dec  2019, Pages 25-40; DOI: 10.31058/j.water.2019.11002 10.31058/j.water.2019.11002

Interoceanic Waterways Network System, Integrated Systems: Hydrology of the Future

, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Dec  2019, Pages 25-40.

DOI: 10.31058/j.water.2019.11002

Lepota Lazar Cosmo 1*

1 American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, USA

Received: 17 September 2018; Accepted: 31 July 2019; Published: 25 September 2019

Abstract

Networks are an opportunity for more efficient and more effective disposal of water resources. The use of the net in the management of water systems, river and sea-river channels, emphasize the efficiency of integrated water resources decisioning. The conclusions of geomorphogical and paleohydrologic research can provide a more complete picture of hydrological potentials, and adequate hydrological management. The paper recognizes permeations as the basis for designing river channel systems, planning and implementation of rivers, lake-river and sea-river channels in order to better exploit water resources and connect river flows. In this there are prerequisites for water management of the construction of systemic river traffic distances of completely regulated or at least controllable river systems. The analysis of large continental rivers is made by the observation of water systems, comparisons and useful conclusions of the European, African and Asian network systems, as well as the possibilities of their further use and development.

Keywords

In-Land Waterways, Integrated Interoceanic Canal Network, Permeative Distance, Transoceanic Canals, River Diversion, Interoceanic Waterways

1. Introduction

Waterway, natural or artificial navigable inland body of water, or system of interconnected bodies of water, used for transportation, may include a lake, river, canal, or any combination of these. The existence of waterways has been an important factor in the development of regions.

In Europe, where the canal era had also started toward the end of the 17th century and continued well into the 18th, France took the lead, integrating its national waterway system further by forging the missing links. In the north the Saint-Quentin Canal, with a 3 1/2-mile tunnel, opened in 1810, linking the North Sea and the Schelde and Lys systems with the English Channel via the Somme and with Paris and Le Havre via the Oise and Seine.

In the United States, canal building began slowly;only 100 miles of canals had been built at the beginning of the 19th century;but before the end of the century more than 4,000 miles were open to navigation. With wagon haulage difficult, slow, and costly for bulk commodities, water transport was the key to the opening up of the interior, but the way was barred by the Allegheny Mountains. To overcome this obstacle, it was necessary to go north by sea via the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes or south to the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi. The Erie Canal, 363 miles long with 82 locks from Albany on the Hudson to Buffalo on Lake Erie, was built by the state of New York from 1817 to 1825. Highly successful from the start, it opened up the Midwestern prairies, the produce of which could flow eastward to New York, with manufactured goods making the return journey westward, giving New York predominance over other Atlantic seaboard ports. The Champlain Canal was opened in 1823;but not until 1843, with the completion of the Chambly Canal, was access to the St. Lawrence made possible via the Richelieu River. Meanwhile, Canada had constructed the Welland Canal linking Lakes Ontario and Erie. Opened in 1829, it overcame the 327-foot difference in elevation with 40 locks, making navigation possible to Lake Michigan and Chicago. Later the St. Mary’s Falls Canal connected Lake Huron and Lake Superior. To provide a southern route around the Allegheny Mountains, the Susquehanna and Ohio rivers were linked in 1834 by a 394-mile canal between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. A unique feature of this route was the combination of water and rail transport with a 37-mile portage by rail by five inclined planes rising 1,399 feet to the summit station 2,334 feet above sea level and then falling 1,150 feet to Johnstown on the far side of the mountains, where a 105-mile canal with 68 locks ran to Pittsburgh. By 1856 a series of canals linked this canal system to the Erie Canal.

Waterways fall into three categories, each with its particular features:natural rivers, canalized rivers, and artificial canals. [1]

Canalized rivers navigation is facilitated by constructing locks that create a series of steps, the length of which depends on the natural gradient of the valley and on the rise at each lock. Associated with the locks for passing vessels, weirs and sluices are required for passing surplus water;and in modern canalizations, such as the Rhône and the Rhine, hydroelectric generation has introduced deep locks with longer artificial approach channels, which require bank protection against erosion and, in some strata, bed protection against seepage losses.

Artificial canals navigation can depart from natural river valleys and pass through hills and watersheds, crossing over valleys and streams along an artificial channel, the banks and sometimes the bed of which need protection against erosion and seepage. The route of an artificial canal can be selected to provide faster travel on long level pounds (stretches between locks), with necessary locks grouped either as a staircase with one chamber leading directly to another or as a flight with short intervening pounds. Where substantial differences of level arise or can be introduced, vertical lifts or inclined planes can be constructed. [1]

2. Methods and Materials

In paper we will analyze, firstly, the course of the Paran river, its middle and lower flow, Pargue Nacional Iguacu, from Proto Figurueira to Guhir and Ilha Grande. The analysis of large continental rivers is made by the observation of water systems, comparisons and useful conclusions of the European, African and Asian network systems, as well as the possibilities of their further development.

After the analysis we will perform certain comparisons, inter-system comparisons and find certain similarities and regularities in the hydrological sense. In paleogeographic studies, we perceive certain qualities, or paleo-hydrological phenomena, unique (as geological and hydrogeological occurrences) or as specificity in classifications of hydrological dynamics, elements of paleo-propagation, in certain conditions, through description and definition.) These paleo phenomena will be adequate registered, by mentioning the main examples and including them in the class of significant geographical distinctions, as a sort of geographic gems, in the actual contraction or in paleo-reconstruction.

These paleo-phenomena hydrological products are valuable not only in geological, but also in overall terms, as hydro-morphological and geographical phenomena. The geo-hydrological locations are listed, as part of the analyzed river flows, new terms explained by the existing ones, casting emphasis on examples, and their side.

Geographical observation is the main value of the scientific insight. Conclusions and developments are in some cases more than obvious, on the others on others they represent valid data for further scientific verification.

The relation of the elements is active and mutually explicit. The result of the observation method is demonstrated, inter alia, in the notion that the interactive map is a paleohydrological map. With actual flows here are also actual paleo-products. An interactive map is an intertemporal insight of the recorded state.

Paleo River forms a network of paleo-channels, in different periods of paleo-dynamics. Paleo-streams are wider than the reaches of the current rivers and their recent meanders, and have not been created by the hydro-potential of the present, but by the hydro-potential of the paleo river and from their paleo-usacles, as well as by certain chronological hydrologic factors.

The paleo-basin consists of paleo channels of one river, i.e. the basin is the product of one paleo dynamics. Paleo-hydrologic analysis distinguish:1) paleo river in the paleo-channel 2) paleo river in the new channel 3) new paleo fluvium in the former channel 4) new river in the old paleo channel (biflux) 5) new channel of the old river.

3. Integrated Waterways Systems

3.1. Parana and Danube

The Parana river area consists of Pargue Nacional Iguacu, Pargue Nacional de Ilha Grande, from Proto Figurueira to Guhir, the fluvial fan of Ituzaingo (Pargue Izera), Mirinay river, the former channel Parana river and paleo influx of Parana river to Uruguay near Uruguaiana, and further Quarai river. Aguapey river, with paleo channel and paleo influx at Alvear. [2] [3] The Uruguy river is the paleo flow of Parana. Paleo-confluxes are the bifluxes or paleo-islands of one paleo-river. Paleo-islands comprise the flow of two rivers, one channel that is biflux and the new channel of the older river, the older channel of the older river (biflux) through which the new river flows. In this example, it is the Latino-Iberian paleo-island (Parque Ibera):from Itaquie to Nueva Palmira (Colonia Estrella), and from Posadasa and Puerto Valle (Resistencia) to Buenos Aires ( Figure 1 ).

The Little Danube is the former paleo-Danube stream. Danube is here making 20 km of transgression in relation to the current course. At Kolarovo paleo-conflux in Vaha river, the current Vaha from Kolarovo to Komarno is paleo-steambed of the Danube. From Loebendorf and Kerneuburg, through Seyring, Strasshof and Schonfeld, to Marchegg in Horny Les. Horny and Dolny Les is the result of the Danube Transgression and the Moravian Meanderage. The paleo channel of the Marchegg Stadt to Devin was the former Danube flow. Zagyva is the paleo channel of the Danube, to Szolnok, as well as the present Tisza from Szolnok to Titel (supra-panonian). The Danube paleo-delta at Constanța is the fluvial residue of the paleo-Danube flow Cerna Voda-Constanta, with Brajla and Belem Island.

Pannonian paleo-island is a paleo-block marked by paleodynamic points Szentendrei sziget-Szolnok-Titel-Vukovar. The paleo-island is a block marked by paleodynamic points, paleo confluxes or bipaleoconfluxes, and paleo fluvial levers. Paleo river is characterized by a paleo conflux, paleo basin, paleo channel, and a paleo islet.

Large paleo-channels from Szeckesfehervar are also noticeable, through Nagydoreg to Szekesard (present Halasto) and Baja's wetlands.

For the Pannonian paleo-island of the Quarternary Danube, two paleo confluxes are characteristic:Titel and Pančevo. And three hydrodynamic phases:Supra Pannonian, Supra Almamontic and Sub Almamontic. Upper Panonian is described by meanders, river islands, and paleo confluxes, as specific Pannonian paleo dynamics. Pannonian lakes and river lakes produce interesting hydrological products. The basin of giant Lake Pannon in Central Europe was filled by forward accretion of sediment packages during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. Most sediments were supplied by the paleo-Danube. The northeastern part of Lake Pannon was filled by the paleo-Tisza system, supplying sediments from the Northeastern and Eastern Carpathians. [4][5]

C:\Users\wujin\Desktop\2.png

Figure 1. Latin Iberian paleo-conflux, Colonia Estrella, Parana.

Pancevacki rit is the result of the propagation of the Danube-Tisza basin from the Begej’s Perlez to the Centa, and the Tamis-Danube hydrology. The Tamisian swamp is a layered paleo-genesis:a unique European paleo transition:the Paleodunabian, Paleotiszian (with the Paleo-danubian sub-phase), and the Tamisian. The Tamisian is in fact a new stream of the paleo-Danubian flow trajectory.

Danubian loess deposits initiated in response to the tectonic formation of the Pannonian basin, retreat of the large paleolakes, and increased sediment supply from the Danube. [6]

Table 1. Paleohydrographic features of rivers.

Paleohydrographic feature

Paleohydrographic feature

Bipaleoconflux*

Titel (Danube)

Tibiscum (Danube)

Nueva Palmira (Parana)

Paleo-Insula

Latin-Iberean

Pannonian

Counter-Thread

Qena ( Nile)

Erdut (Danube)

Fluvial Axle

Flabellial Axle

Panonian (Danube)

Subsirmian

Fanom (Nile)

Bipaleoflux

Biflux

Belgrade Tibiscum (Danube)

Itaqui-Nueva Palmira (Parana Uruquay) Karada-Abadan (Euphrates Tigris)

Contra-Flux

Surduk (Danube)

Pannonian-Supralmamontic

Paleodelta

Constanța (Danube) Belem (Amazon)

Fluvial Lever

Subsirmian (Hrtkovci)

Table 2. Partial continental channels systems.

System

Permeation

Permeative Distance

River

Endpoints

Permative Rate

Channel

Paleo-Channel

Upper

Pannonian

Budapest-Szolnok

59

Danube

Baltic Sea

Mediterranean Sea

y Paleodanubian

Lower Pannonian

Bezdan-Becej

70

Danube

Mediterranean Sea

Ferenccsatora

Y Paleotibisque Paleodanubian

North Asian

Maltan-Togonogh

25

Lena

Pacific Ocean

y Paleolena

Mesopotamian

Albu Shejel-Taji

35

Euphrates

Tiger

Indian Ocean

Haka canal

Y paleo-Euphrates

Central African

Irumu-Zekere

37

Congo

Atlantic Ocean

y Paleoaruwimian

South American

Puero-Valle-Itaqui

90

Parana

Atlantic Ocean

Aquapey

y

Paleoiberian

South European

Vavousa-Mikrolivado

25

Heliacmon

(Pineios)

Aoos

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea

6.5

n

South European

35

Iskar

Maritsa

Danube

Aegean Sea

7.8

n

Bipaleoconflux is a simultaneous or chronological confluent point of two paleo channels of one river. Contra-flux and biflux are complement dynamic phenomena. Contra-flux is a paleo-dynamic phenomenon where in one channel the waterstream flows in two different time sequences in both directions. Conter-thread is as meander accompanied with simultaneous cut-bank confluxes.

There is major difference between fluvial lever and meander, whereas lever is major river occurrence followed by a series of smaller meanders, and unique river axis, that initiates adequate downstream adjusting. Fluvial lever is a major river turn forming paleo loop, and is usually found at confluent points of paleo-islands. Paleo-island is a block framed by actual or historical flow of one paleo river. Paleo-insula is river island formed partially or completely at any chronological point.

Both, double and opposite paleo flows are also recorded at different hydro chronological intervals, for example, Centa's contraflux, the flow of the river Begej into the Danube, and the Danube River to Begej (Baranda-Surduk).

3.2. Paleohydrography and Channel Systems

The Tennessee River is formed at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers on the east side of present-day Knoxville, Tennessee. From Knoxville, it flows southwest through East Tennessee toward Chattanooga before crossing into Alabama. It loops through northern Alabama and eventually forms a small part of the state's border with Mississippi, before returning to Tennessee.

The Divide Cut is a 29 mi (47 km) canal that makes the connection to the Tennessee River. It connects Pickwick Lake on the Tennessee to Bay Springs Lake, at Mississippi Highway 30. The cut carries the waterway between the Tennessee River watershed, which eventually empties into the Ohio River, and the Tombigbee River watershed, which eventually empties into the Gulf of Mexico. [7]

When the Tennessee Valley Act (TVA) was passed by Congress in 1933, the once free-flowing river became "less a river than a chain of lakes"by installing 25 dams along its length.

The Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway is a 234-mile (377 km) man-made waterway that extends from the Tennessee River to the junction of the Black Warrior-Tombigbee River system near Demopolis, Alabama, United States.

The maximum cut through the natural divide between the Tennessee River and Tombigbee River basins is 175 feet deep and 1,500 feet wide and occurs near the town of Paden, Mississippi, and 23 miles south of the waterway's northern terminus. The average cut through the divide is 50 feet. Bay Springs Lock and Dam is the only navigation feature in the Divide Cut and consists of a lock with a lift of 84 feet which is the third highest lift east of the Mississippi River and a 2,750-foot-long, and 120-foothigh earth and rock-filled dam. The cut through the divide required 150 million yards of excavation, or roughly one-half that required for the entire waterway.

The Old River Control Structure is a floodgate system in a branch of the Mississippi River in central Louisiana. It regulates the flow of water leaving the Mississippi into the Atchafalaya River, thereby preventing the Mississippi river from changing course and was built between the Mississippi's current channel and the Atchafalaya Basin, a former channel of the Mississippi. Turnbull's Bend intercepted the Red River, which became a tributary of the Mississippi River and the Atchafalaya River was formed as a distributary of the Mississippi River. Disniquishing this hydrodynamics canal through the neck of Turnbull's Bend was made, thus shortening river disflow. Over time, the north section of Turnbull's Bend filled in with sediment. The lower half remained open and became known as Old River. [8][9]

Paleodynamics of the middle and lower Danube provide an insight into the complex prochronology of water masses and flows with change of influx and flow directions within the Prapontic basin. In the chronology of the Pannonian movement of the Danube, three phases are recognizable:a) the original stream of the Danube from Vac, with the pseudopaleoinflux at Szolnak, the Danube flow through the Tisza channel through Pannonia to the mouth of the Deliblatska Pescara, and Pancsevo, with suprapannonian transition I-Ia, b) the supraalmamontic, with the paleo-Danube conflux into Tisza at Becej, the supra-subalmamontic fluvium of the Danube and Sava (Cybelae- Ulca, Cybelae-Syrmium) and Ulca paleoconflux (Savus, Dravus) with Cybelae-Syrmium paleoflux of the Sava, the subalmamontic fluvium with mediation of Slavonian Lake d) the supraalmamontic fluvium with Titel and Pancsevo paleoconfluxes. Linear Vac and rectal Budim fluvium, with two sub-phases, sub and supraalmamonian, Danube paleoconflux, subalmamontic fluvium of Subpannonian-Carpathian paleoconflux.. [10]

Some favorable examples of the incisive use of paleo hydrodynamic systems are:Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal, Danube-Tiszian Supraalmamontic-Subpannonian phase, Dunav-Sava Canal Laco-Subalmamontic (laco-Savus, laco-Danubian), Euphrates-Tigris ( Table 2 ).

Paleohydrographic observation shows us two distinct turns of the Danube, at Vukovar and Vac. Both rectangles are neo-pleistocenic in nature. Vac rectal is paleo-substitutions for linear Danube, the Vukovar rectal for the original savian semi-conflux. For the sub-supramalmontontic transition, a characteristic Paleo-Drava catabase, with angular displacement of supraalmamontic thrust. Thus, the Danube paleochannel is actually Tisza and Sava in sequences, with flows of the Sava to Slavonian laco-fluvial paleoconflux, and Paleotissiae to Szolnok paleoconflux. The lenth of the pontian fluvial subtributes is consequently segmentally reduced. Pra-Sava is a pronounced subslavonian river, with the Danube paleoinflux on the Bosnian-Slavonian limes. From the slavonian permeation on, Bosut's channel is paleo-Danube, with a median spread from linear to quasi-flat plain expansion, in Lower Srem.

The subalmamontic lever is the most remarkable example of paleodynamical hydro-potential. Raising the river Savus flow from Bitva river to Sremska Mitrovica was accompanied by the descent of Savus river from the axis in direction Hrtkovci-New Belgrade to the Orid envelope.

Danubian paleohydrohypocycloid (HHC) consist of four confluent points with three bipaleoconfluxes and 1 contraflux:i point, Pancsevo, bipaleoconflux Danube I-II, bipaleoconflux Danube III-IIIa (Tamisian), paleoconflux Savus-Danube, ii point, Belgrade, bipaleoconflux Danube II-III, paleoconflux Savus II-Dravus, (bi)paleoconflux Savus II-III, paleoconflux Savus III-Danube III, iii point, Centa, Paleoconflux Danube III-Tamis, iv point, conflux Danube III-Tamis. ( Table 1 )

Tisza continues trough the paleo-danubian channel, with translative paleoinflux. [12]

This factor of the sub-sirmian paleohydrographic dynamics is main characteristic for the transition from the second to the third phase, the formation of subsirmian Sava, the alternate cata-anabasis of the subalmamontic Danube, with the active lever system of the sub-sermian catabasis.

The basic sub-sirmian stronghold initiated by the formation of the pra-Savus and the gradual disappearance of the Danube delta, was followed by the third segment of the subslavonian catabasis, which is the laco-fluvial cause of sub-sermian dynamics. The second subalmamontal phase has characteristic linear sub-sirmian paleo-danubial flow, which is effectuated in the Lower Pannonian and Carpathian. The possibilities of this effectuation are different, but they are basically pre-Carpathian sediments and confluxes.

Every big river has its 100 miles event, such as proto-Nile (formerly propagation through current Red Sea) or the paleo-Danube (and its remarkable Pannonian phases). Nasser Lake paleo channels are paleo factor of Nile's menader (Toshka-Toshka lakes to Lake Nasser by forming circle of laco-fluvial island, Adu at Nasser Lake, Esnaq, Sohag, with alternative system of pool towards Fanafra.

River pivots, axes and channels are representative phenomena of hydrodynamics. [13] To such are added polygeohidrographic phenomena as the results of complex synergy of two or even more factors such as hydro entities, most frequently flows, faded currents, paleo lagoons or poly, bi to mono paleo-confluxes.

3.3. Integrated Waterways Systems

The channel system, integrated waterways network systems, interoceanic waterways system network (WSN), or simply the network system (NS) is interoceanic and transcontinental entity ( Figure 2 ). The WSN paradigmicaly consists of:a) river-river channel, b) lake-river channel, v) sea-river channel, c) sea-lake-river channel system. [14][15]A typical example of a river basin system is the transoceanic river channel system, the system of transgression of river basins watersheds, whereas watersheds in the form of rivers permeations. Permeations are understood as span within the integrated networks of the transcontinental system. Classical river channel systems (CS) are at the beginning, permeation of intercontinental basins, ie connecting family of functions of related river systems, river systems of the same sea or oceanic basin (Danube-Tisza-Danube, Danube-Rhine-Main). Intercontinental networks are the lake-river-sea-ocean traffic trajectories (as is the case in the Great Lakes-Illinois River-Mississippi-Mexico Bay system, Great Loop). [16][17] The WSN is an engineering permeation of interoceanic water channels, a system of manageable channels and long-distance navigation lines. The hydrologic analysis has yet to decide which of the available geomorphological structures is efficient, in which way some paleohydrological outlets are more favorable than alternative ones, which permeations are functional and communicatively effective, how to design and use the hydrological potential of flows. [18][19]

WNS is an integrated river marine system. In relation to the transoceanic, it covers much larger territory providing a holistic approach to overall river resources. An interoceanic system is a connection or a conjunction between the transoceanic systems. The IS is cost-effective considering the percentage of navigable accessibility. IS costs are composed of various factors:the cost in reducing interoceanic distances, indirect and circumventive navigation, better approximations of territorial distances between transport points, availability of alternatives and choices, less isolation, interconnection of the interior with the ocean (territorial compactness), overcoming the natural and communication barriers, reduction of intermodal traffic costs, and harmonization of intramodal traffic (ship-land, ocean-river), reduction of differences in intramodal traffic and water system integration, international cooperation, spatial organization and territorial unification, intersystem distribution, long distances equilibrium.

Disquilibrium of long distances is the consequence of the unavailability of favorable alternatives and the impossibility of making an adequate cost-benefit analysis. [20]

C:\Users\wujin\Desktop\3.png

Figure 2. IWSN Permeation Areas World Map.

Interoceanic channel system is an integrated channel system of transoceanic and interoceanic distances composed of sub-systems and partial network systems. The integral interoceanic system is composed of two interoceanic systems:the in-land and marine interoceanic system. Without aquatic, the interoceanic channel system would in fact only be a system of continental networks. The IS is comprised of an integrated continental network and an interconnected oceanic systems. Thus, the integral waterways system is the optimal interpretation of the integrated network theorem.

The waterways system is not composed of double ended points but rather as a global integrated poly-oriented network. According to this structure, the IN theorem (Intergrated Network Theorem) is applied within the system of integrated and equally distributed nodes. Continental knots of the waterways network are parts of the one integrated system. The water channel system is global, covering the entire territory in terms of logistical disposability.

Permeative distance basins transjections refers to the optimal channel connections of large rivers (river systems and optimal sub-basins interoceanic transgressions). An additional problem is that divide line is defined as a line between the two peaks, without taking into account basins capacities, divide portages, and that traversions and permeation lines are effected in optimal physical communication. The divide distance is unfavorable due to the fact that the mountain is the two-sided drainage system, having one peak as the source of two divides. The divide distance refers to divides non-selectively, while the permeative distance to the most important strategic directions and communications, as effective communicative transversions. On the other hand, the permeation lines are not linear but are selective given the uniqueness and strategic importance of such geographical phenomena.

Permeation lines are draft maps, or mapping system templates for the elaboration of specific diversion maps, having diversion lines and distances as its precise technical tools. In practice, one divide line has one or two favorable strategic communications, defined as permeation points. Permeation zones are the most optimal divide zones, or communicatively-oriented intercontinental interchanges.

Every continent has its own integrated network. North American, European, and European-Asian networks are in relation to South-American, African and Asian (as well as South-Asian) ( Table 4 ).

The degree of exploitation of the network system capacity is not satisfactory, but it is far from negative. At this time, only low percent of the network river system is used in the integrated waterway system. [20] Existing continental coverage can also be improved, partially and holistically;the North American network system should be enhanced from the Transoceanic to Atlantic-Pacific system.

Table 3. Interoceanic and transoceanic water system permeations.

System

Permeation

Permeative distance

Rivers, lakes

Endpoints

Territories of permeation

Permeative rates

South Asian

New Delhi-Ganganar

150

Ganges

Sutlej

India

5.7

South Asian

Apti-Khandaj

(Nira-Dhavali)

4

Krishna

Bay of Bengal

Arabian Sea

India

0.5

Euro-Iberian

Cuenca-Montalbo

35

Jucar

Gudiana (Ciguela)

Mediterranean Sea

Atlantic Sea

Spain

3.8

Euro-Iberian

Cuenca-Culebras

(Guadamejud-Chillaron)

20

Jucar

Tagus

Mediterranean Sea

Atlantic Sea

Spain

2.1

West African

Siguiri-Bafing

45

Senegal

Niger

Atlantic Ocean

Guinea

Euro Asian

Reinosa-Bilbao

(Trueba-Cadagua)

60

Ebro

Mediterranean

Sea

Atlantic Sea

Spain

9.4

North American

Teton Wilderness

(Atlantic Creek-Pacific Creek)

0.5

Yellowstone

(Mississippi)

Snake

(Columbia)

Atlantic Sea

Pacific Sea

USA

0.001

Euro Appenian

Ceva-Savona

18.6

Po

Tanaro

Adriatic Sea

Ligurian Sea

Italy

4.5

Euro Appenian

Perugia-Ancona

25

Tiber

Esino, Metauro

Adriatic Sea

Tyrrhenian Sea

Italy

8.7

The challenge of the actual channel system is the transition to the integrated water system (integrated network system) trans and interoceanic which would connect the Artic, Atlantic and Pacific ocean ( Table 3 ). The synergy of these interactions is substantial. The goal of integrated systems is to increase coverage of the territory. For integrated water system engineering is therefore to further study the integrated channel traffic system. The network systems are characteristic of large continental spaces.

IWSN is a promising field of water management. Continental systems are territorial networks and in this sense we divide them into:partial systems (unintegrated river system) and prospective integral systems (river systems integrated into the network of intercontinental channels).

River systems of natural and integrated coverage. It must be further assumed that the management system should be conceived in relation to the natural system. [20] [21] Continents are covered by natural, not manageable systems integratively. Certainly there are possibilities for a holistic approach, in terms of integrative waterways systems. [22] In future we can talk about smart, sustainable, continental systems. Integrated traffic networks are such sustainable systems. [23] The integral traffic system is a smart or healthy network. The fine-tuned use and efficient choice between the offered alternatives is the modality of integral water management. management has a choice between options, systems, or elements of systems, such as the management of the river network.

3.4. Integrated Interoceanic Channel Systems

The African system consists of river and lake-river alternatives, in an integrated interoceanic channel system (Congo-Zambezi, Congo-Nile). Asian system is divided into North and South West Asian:the permeation of the lower flows Ob, Yenysei, Lena, Amur and their integration into the lake and marine system. Permeations are the traces of former Siberian river traffic routes. The North Asian network is interoceanic (connecting the Kara and Laptev sea to the Pacific). The option of the North Asian system is:a) river-river channel system (Ob-Yenysei, Lena-Yenysei-Lena, Lena-Amur), b) river-river-sea channel system (Lena-Okhotsk sea, Okhotsk-Amur-Lena-Lake Baikal). The ratio between the length of channel’s fissure and the length of the river is high. (The projected extension rate is significant.) The projected extensibility rate is in correlation with the permeative rate. This is best interpreted on the permeations of Nile-Congo, Lena-Amur ( Table 5 ).

The Lower Asian system covers the territories of China, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia (Yangtse, Mekong), Thailand and Myanmar (Salween-Mekong), and is a river-river-sea system. The rivers waterways system has been successfully applied in the case of the Yangtse-Yellow River channel system ( Table 4 ). [23] Yangtse-Mekong permeation connects the Yangtse river system (the great Asian spaces of the Yangtse River), the East China Sea with the Thailand Bay and the South China Sea, and is in interaction with the Yangtse-Yellow River channel system. The Yangtse-Salween permeation connects the Chinese Sea to the Adaman Sea, and the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean. Lower Asia has a complex and diverse system of permeable river flows. These flows have great international geohydrological, geopolitical and communicative significance. ( Table 7 ) The North Asian and South East Asian systems complete the image of the Asian continental network system. [24]

Table 4. Great Interoceanic Network Systems.

System

Permeation

Permeative distances

Rivers, lakes

Endpoints

Territories of permeation

Permeative rates

North American

Tennessee-

Tombigbee

234

Great Lakes, Mississippi,

Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway

Gulf of Mexico,

Great Lakes

USA

9.1

Middle Lower Asian

Aldan Maya-Aldoma

Batomga-Aimchan-

Aldoma

20

Ob, Yenysei, Lena, Amur

Artic Ocean

North Pacific Ocean

0.7

Lower Asian

Junnan

Xiangyun-Nanjian

-Mawan

(Three Parallel Rivers)

120

Yangtse (Jinsha), Mekong (Lancang)

North China Sea

Golf of Thailand

Andaman Sea

China

2.1

South American

Peruvian

Inquitos (Huancajo)

-Lima

125

Amazon

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Peru

2.8

African

Irumu-Zekere Aruwimi (Congo)

37

Lake Albert Nile,

Zambezi, Congo

Mediterranean Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Congo

0.5

Table 5. North Asian Integrated Networks with permeations.

System

Permeation

Length

Rivers, lakes

Permeative rates

North Asian

Ust-Kut-river Angara

80

Yenisey

Lena

1.6

North Asian

Narim-Yeniseysk

Ob

Yenisey

North Asian

Okhotsk-Adan

250

Lena

9.3

North Asian

Nerchinsk-Chita-Ulan-Ude

300

Amur

6.2

North Asian

Maltan-Togonogh

25

Lena

0.9

The Amazon channel with its most important tributaries covers the entire longitude of the South American continent. 700 km of Amazon River is separated by 150 km long Lima's permeation. Amazon is navigable to Iquitos.

The geohydrological insight recognizes the great potencies for the Peruvian channel (Iquitos-Lima), the Iquiots-Lima navigational shaft of Peruvian permeation. The South American network is an ocean-river-river-ocean interoceanic system of Atlantic-Pacific Iquitis-Lima permeation. Transoceanic shaft has permeate points, and the connection of two oceans at low distances of low permeation rate is more than attractive. there is a geomorphological, touristic, logistic potential of the Peruvian, Pacific Amazonian channel. The system is also interesting as a downstream link between the Amazon and the interior of the continent and the somewhat closed West Coast of the Pacific. The partial systems should be added to the intraregional systems. We emphasize only some of the continental systems:the Mediterranean-Atlantic (Euro Iberian channel), The Adriatic-The Mediterranean Sea (Euro Apennine), Hindu (sub-Asian, the Bengal Bay-the Arabian Sea) as well as many other, communicative and internal geo-logistic systems ( Table 4 ).

Table 6. Some representative transoceanic canal systems.

Waterway

Start-end point

Length

Ocean

Country

Main-Danube

Bamberg-Kelheim

106

North Sea

Black Sea

Germany

White Sea-Baltic Sea

Povenets-Belomorsk

141

White Sea

Baltic Sea

Russia

Volga-Baltic Sea

Cherepovets-Lake Onega

229

Baltic Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Volga-Don

Sarepta-Kalach na Donu

63

Caspian Sea

Black Sea

Kiel

Brunsbuttel-Kiel

31

North Sea

Baltic Sea

Germany

Oswego

Oswego-Erie

23.7

Great Lakes

Atlantic Ocean

United States

Canal du Midi

Toulouse-Etang de Thau

150

Atlantic Ocean

Mediterranean Sea

France

Table 7. Transoceanic channels.

Canal

Length

Place

Status

Endpoints

Notes

Grand Canal

1.115

Chinese subcontinent

Construction began 15th c. BC

First major section completed in 6th c. BC

South China

North China Plain

Rhine–Main–Danube Canal

2.177

Initially proposed by Charlemagne

Post-War WWII reconstruction completed 1992

North Sea

Black Sea

Channelizing the Rhine, the Main and the Danube, and connecting with a canal crossing the European Continental Divide, it traverses Europe. When combined with the Marne–Rhine Canal, it connects to the English Channel. With the addition of the proposed Danube–Oder Canal, the waterway system would also access the Baltic Sea.

Mississippi River System

2,320

Central United States

Gulf of Mexico

Great Lakes

Channelizing the Mississippi River and major tributaries/distributaries, it accesses central North America. With the St. Lawrence Seaway it reaches the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and turns the Midwest and East Coast of the United States into a virtual island.

Unified Deep Water System of European Russia

Russia

Baltic Sea

Caspian Sea

White Sea

Traversing across European Russia, the shipping waterway accesses the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean basins, and combined with the Suez Canal, accesses the Indian Ocean as well.

Suez Canal

102

Suez Isthmus

Atlantic Ocean (Mediterranean Sea)

Indian Ocean (Red Sea)

The level (lock-less) canal follows the Suez Rift Valley, from the Gulf of Suez to the Mediterranean. Completed 1869

Panama Canal

51

Panamanian Isthmus

Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean Sea)

Pacific Ocean

This lock-encumbered canal takes advantage of the Chagres River, used to create Gatun Lake, over the western side of the continental divide

4. Conclusions

Networks are an opportunity for more efficient disposal of water resources. The use of the net in the management of water systems, river and sea-river channels, emphasize the efficiency of integral water management. The conclusions of geomorphologic and paleohydroloic research can provide a more complete picture of hydrological potentials and adequate hydrological management. Analysis of river flows use premise and paleodynamic capacities, such as paleo-flows, hydro-whorls, fluvial blocks, for environmental and ecological projects.

Paleohydrology is the great presumption factor of a sustainable water economy. Long-term effectiveness is in correlation with environmental and hydrodynamic conditions.

The paper recognizes permeations as the basis for designing river channel systems, planning and implementation of rivers, lake-river and sea-river channels in order to better exploit water resources and connect river flows. Transgressions are hidden hydro-spatial potentials, in terms of continental water coverage, continuous net of river roads. In this there are prerequisites for water management of the construction of systemic river traffic distances of completely regulated or at least controllable river systems. The water system includes two or more river basins. The uses of forces of nature, natural resources, are great advantages of roads.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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