Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Apr  2018, Pages 29-37; DOI: 10.31058/j.bs.2018.22004 10.31058/j.bs.2018.22004

Impact of the Development the Animal Husbandry on the Condition Organic Matter in Soils

, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Apr  2018, Pages 29-37.

DOI: 10.31058/j.bs.2018.22004

Natalya Mudrykh 1* , Iraida Samofalova 2

1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Soil Science, Agrochemistry, Ecology and Merchandising, perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia

2 Department of Agrochemistry, Faculty of Soil Science, Agrochemistry, Ecology and Merchandising, perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia

Received: 2 January 2018; Accepted: 25 February 2018; Published: 4 June 2018

Abstract

Industrialization of agrocomplexes and farms, wide application of fertilizers and pesticides allowed increase in the productivity agrocenoses, but worsened their ecological and safety of received production. Transition to intensive technologies in agriculture showed their active influence not only on agrocenoses, but also on the equilibrium of the entire system. Regulation of the balance of humus in the soil and extended its reproduction can be done in two ways: a) an increase in revenues in the soil organic matter (organic fertilizers, afterreap and root resi-dues), b) the reduction of organic matter mineralization using agricultural methods. Perm Krai is located in the Western Predural’e and defined by the coordinates 56°06-61°39 N and 51°47-59°03 E. On the Krai territory secreted 6 naturally-farming districts. Earlier, the authors have conducted of agroecological assessment on the humus condition in the soils of the Perm Krai in these districts. The purpose of research is to determine the effectiveness of use of wastes animal husbandry to ensure the sufficient balance of the humus in the soil. Degree of development of territory of the region is different, that is expressed in of agricultural area and stooks cattle. Amount of agricultural lands per 1 head of cattle varies from 4.0 to 8.9 ha, at norm 2 ha. With such development of cattle breeding in the Perm Krai and the use of wastes industry has note very low saturation 1 hectares of agricultural land the organic matter (0.43-1.87 t/ha). Thus, it was found that for increasing saturation 1 hectare of plough land and 1 hectares of agricultural land is necessary to increase the number of animal husbandry, a minimum of 2 times, and increase the use of wastes animal husbandry only cattle will enhance the saturation of one hectare of plough land to 3.0-3.4 t/ha.

Keywords

Environmental Sustainability, Soil, Humus, Organic Matter, Animal Husbandry, Agricultural Area

1. Introduction

The adopted program of agricultural production development in Russia (till 2020) presupposes its further development with animal husbandry defined as its prioritizing direction. Meanwhile agricultural complexesand farms industrialization, mineral fertilizers and pesticides broad application allowed to increase agrocoenosises specific productivity but worsened their environmental friendliness and production safety. The transitionto intensive technologies in agriculture showed their active influence not only on agrocnosises but on the whole system balance. In recent years the concept of environmental sustainability of agriculture is becomingincreasingly important in the world. Use and quality of agricultural lands play an important role [1-3].

For the last 25-30 years sod-podzolic agrogenic soil of Non-Black Earth Belt lost 20-30% of organic substance. The reasons for this are as follows: fresh organic substance flow into soil decrease; intensification oforganic substance mineralization as a result of intense soil treatment; cultivated crop share increase and perennial grass in field crop rotation decrease; a prolonged usage of mineral fertilizers without lime; plough-layerdilution by less humus with considerable increase of plough depth; humus isolation from the field enriched in fine soil in field work; water, wind soil erosion display [4, 5].

Humus stocks in soils of the Perm region are on average 55-80 t/ha. State of the humus content of arable land, and of that in active circulation especially; indicate its rapidly increasing humification. The annual deficitof 898 kg humus /ha. Maintaining this deficiency can lead to irreversible consequences [6-8].

The scientists of Perm Agricultural Research Institute have found out that degradation processes are taking place all over the territory of Perm Krai and if the current situation is not going to be changed, then thestorage of nutrient elements in the soil will be completely depleted within 5-7 years, and that this situation will become irreversible [9, 10].

There are two ways to regulate humus balance in soil and to produce it extensively: a) to increase organic substance (fertilizers, crop-root remains) flow into soil; b) to decrease organic substance mineralization byagricultural ways [11-13].

In recent decades, Russia has witnessed an annual reduction and throwing of productive lands [14]. On the territory of Perm Krai there is an annual reduction of the plough land, which is removed out of agriculturaluse and is gradually becoming a fallow land with different return periods (5, 10, 20 years, etc.). Stopping use of soils results in the loss or modification of some properties to their natural condition. The processes thatpredominate in virgin soils are restored, sometimes even more intensely, in post-agrogenic soils [15, 16].

Soil quality assessment should be carried out not only by the physical, chemical and physical-chemical parameters, but also the biological activity of the soil is to be taken into account, as it allows to judge theorientation of soil formation processes as well as the condition of soil fertility [17, 18].

The peculiarities of sod-podzolic soils are in their acidity, marked differentiation of soil horizons, relative poverty of nutrient elements and organic matter, feebly marked structure and the presence of the inert podzolichorizon as well as in the flushing type of soil water regime [19, 20].

The research is to determine defining animal husbandry branch wastes usage efficiency to provide non-deficit humus balance in soils.

Materials and Methods

To determine the effectiveness of the use of waste livestock industry to ensure a balanced balance of humus in the soil is necessary to have an understanding of the geographical location and natural conditions of thePerm region.

Perm Krai is situated in Western Cis-Ural region and defined by 56°06ʹ-61°39ʹ of northern latitude and 51°47ʹ-59°03ʹ eastern longitude (Figure 1). From north to south the territory of the Krai stretches for 600 km,from west to east in the south-ern part of the Krai for 200 km, in the northern part for 500 km [21].

C: \Users\Comp\Downloads\карта.jpg

Figure 1. The objects of the study [22].

According to natural-agricultural zoning Krai territory is totally situated in boreal belt, here three natural-agricultural zones are outlined: middle taiga, south taiga, forest steppe within which natural-agriculturalprovinces and districts are pointed out. On the Krai territory 6 natural-agricultural areas are outlined and 40 administrative regions (see : Table 1).

Table 1. Agroclimatic conditions natural-agricultural area in Perm Krai [21].

Natural-agricultural area

Administrative regions

Agroclimatic conditions

1*

2

3

4

5

Northern middle taiga

Cherdynsky, Krasnovishersky

1.33

1250

68

489

145

Komi-Permyak Northern-Western Southern taiga forest

Gaynsky, Kosinsky, Kochevsky, Kudymkarsky, Yusvensky, Yurlinsky

1.33

1550

85

469

153

Central-Eastern Southern taiga forest

Aleksandrovsky, Kizelovsky, Chusovskoy, Sivinsky, Dobryansky, Lysva, Ilyinsky, Solikamsk, Perm, Gubakhinsky, Usolye, Gremyachinsky, Gornozavodsky, Krasnokamsk

1.24

1700

93

460

159

Western-Southern-taiga-forest

Kuyedinsky, Vereshchaginsky, Nytvensky, Ochersky, Bolshesosnovsky, Elovsky, Tchaikovsky, Bardymsky, Osinsky, Okhansky, Chastinsky

1.15

1750

96

436

156

Southern Southern-forest

Chernushensky, Uinsky, October

1.11

1850

101

423

169

Southern-Eastern forest steppe

Kungur, Suksunsky, Ordinsky, Berezovsky, Kishertsky

1.24

1725

94

473

159

Note: 1 - moistening coefficient; 2 - the sum of temperatures is above 10 ° C; 3 - biological coefficient of productivity; 4 - an amount of precipitation in a year, mm; 5 - the number of days with a temperature above 5 ° C

Agro-climatic conditions show that all areas are poorly provided with heat and fully supplied with moisture. The Northern middle taiga and Komi-Permyak Northern-Western Southern taiga forest areas have low biological productivity, and all the others average.

Perm Krai is distinguished by a variety of natural factors of soil formation, the structure of the soil cover – complexity and contrast, which in turn affects the quality of land used in agriculture. All factors of soil formation have a geographical pattern of changes from North to South, and accordingly, the main properties of the soil are changed. In the Northern regions on top loam and clay formed podzolic soil. In the Central-Eastern Southern taiga forest and southern regions of the region on eluvial-deluvial clays and loams, formed sod-podzolic soils. In the Kungur forest-steppe, podzolized and in a small quantity leached chernozems. The most common are podzolic soils (79.5%), of which the share of sod-podzolic soils account for 39% of the total area of the edge, podzolic 30.5%. More fertile soil (gray forest and Chernozem podzolized) make up only 4.2%. Marsh and floodplain soils account for 10.7% [21]. In General, the edge is dominated by soils of heavy granulometric composition.

Earlier the authors assessed the humus soil state of Krai in the mentioned above districts [23].

To assess the impact of the livestock industry in the soil humus status of Perm Krai, we used data of Federal State Unitary Enterprise reports GTSAS " Perm" and The National Atlas of Russian soils. Data on average-weighted humus content, land area, cattle stock of administrative districts are calculated by natural-agricultural areas.

Results and Discussion

It should be noted that the extent of Perm Krai territory development varies ( Table 2 ). The Western part of the Krai concentrates the most agricultural land area (43 % of the Krai agricultural land area); the Northernpart concentrates the least agricultural land area only 8 %.

Table 2. Agricultural land area in natural-agricultural areas, hectare thousand.

Natural-agricultural area

Kind of land area

agricultural land area

plough

hayfield, pasture field

2011

2017

2011

2017

2011

2017

1

Northern middle taiga

2.38

1.41

2.20

1.25

0.18

0.16

2

Komi-Permyak Northern-Western Southern taiga forest

56.00

48.88

48.28

44.86

7.72

4.03

3

Central-Eastern Southern taiga forest

159.94

119.34

138.05

113.69

21.89

5.65

4

Western-Southern-taiga-forest

330.72

271.60

288.41

249.09

42.32

22.51

5

Southern Southern-forest

44.85

34.80

37.06

29.74

7.79

5.06

6

Southern-Eastern forest steppe

184.08

161.79

168.72

154.25

15.36

7.54

In 2011 year have the most part of plough on the Southern-Eastern forest steppe agricultural land area (91.7%). Western Southern-taiga-forest agricultural land area (87.2%), Central-Eastern Southern-taiga-forest andKomi-Permyak Northern-Western Southern-taiga-forest agricultural land areas (86.3%) and Southern Southern-forest agricultural land area (82.6%). In 2017, the distribution of the share of arable land on agriculturalland in the in natural-agricultural areas was change: on the Southern-Eastern forest steppe agricultural land area and Central-Eastern Southern-taiga-forest (95.3%). In the Western Southern-taiga-forest and Komi-Permyak Northern-Western Southern-taiga-forest agricultural land areas (91.7%), Northern middle taiga 88.8%. Change in the share of arable land can be explained, firstly, by an annual decrease in the area of natural-agricultural land in the natural and agricultural areas of the province, and secondly, by transferring them to another category of land.

It should be mentioned that out of all considered natural-agricultural areas only Southern Southern-forest area has less than 50% soil with a low rate of humus content ( Table 3 ).

Table 3. Degree of availability of soils of arable grounds with a humus in the Natural-agricultural areas in Perm Krai [23].

Natural-agricultural area

Share of soils with the degree of availability, %

The average content of humus, %

very low

low

medium

increased

high

very high

1

48.2

51.0

0.8

1.9

2

34.3

63.8

1.4

0.3

0.1

0.1

2.4

3

26.9

60.8

8.0

2.1

1.4

0.8

2.9

4

32.8

60.3

5.7

0.9

0.2

0.1

2.7

5

1.7

44.2

25.4

11.2

11.4

6.2

4.7

6

2.4

56.1

21.3

9.9

6.3

4.0

4.5

Average

22.6

58.6

10.7

3.9

2.6

1.6

3.2

This area is also marked for the maximum meaning of high humus rate soil (17.6%) and the highest humus content of 4.7%. In Southern-Eastern forest steppe area the considered marks constituted 56.1%, 10.3% and4.5% correspondingly. In Northern middle taiga area all types soil are characterized by very low (48.2%) and low (51.0%) of humus rate. There are no high humus content types of soil in this area. It can be explained bythe fact that initially in these area low-productive podzolic types of soil were formed. Analyzing average-weighted humus content we can conclude that more than 50% of ploughs have a low rate of soil humus, 10.2% an average rate and only 1.9% a high rate.

Earlier the authors [23] specified agro-climatic conditions influence on the humus formation process within Perm Krai in natural-agricultural areas and established the equation of humus content dependence onbiological production index, moisture index, the number of days with the temperature of 5 degrees C above zero, the annual fall-out number, mm, and the total of temperatures of 10 degrees C above zero. The agro-ecological assessment of Perm Krai soil humus state revealed that humus formation conditions in Perm Krai in middle-and Southern-taiga subzones mostly depends on plant biological productivity and consequently onplant type. In this connection it can be supposed that in agrocenoses changes and reduction of species diversity in addition to out-ploughing and soil fatigation can possibly result in humus formation process worsening.All this leads to humus content reduction in soil. To solve this problem to develop and apply effective arable farming systems with optimal usage of agro-chemical substances and biological factors of soil fertilityreproduction is necessary. One of the most important ways of keeping soil fertility and raising agricultural crop rotation productivity consists in organic and mineral fertilizers and their combination usage.

To state whether agricultural areas are enriched in organic fertilizers cattle number and organic fertilizers agricultural areas saturation analysis has been con-ducted. The Krai territory exploration rate being different, itis reflected in cattle stock, organic fertilizers stock and agricultural areas saturation ( Table 4 ).

Table 4. Agricultural areas organic fertilizers saturation.

Natural-agriculturalarea

Cattle stock (animals)

Organic fertilizers stock,ton thousand

Organic fertilizerssaturation plough

2011

2017

2011

2017

2011

2017

1

267

105

1.53

0.60

0.70

0.48

2

13690

12112

78.72

69.64

1.17

1.18

3

39371

37908

226.38

217.97

1.97

1.94

4

66205

67731

380.68

389.45

1.29

1.56

5

8233

7858

47.34

45.18

1.29

1.64

6

43924

41851

252.56

240.64

1.32

1.44

It should be noted that in the 2017 year only in the Western-Southern-taiga-forest region there is an increase in the number of cattle heads, in other regions the number of cattle heads decreased compared to 2011. In theNorthern middle taiga region, the number of cattle heads decreased by 2.5 times.

In 2011 year the number of agricultural areas per one animal cattle has been stated to vary from 4.0 to 8.9 hectare, in 2017 3.1-13.4 t/ha, with the norm of 2 hectare. It means that agricultural areas are used only to37-49% and in Northern middle taiga area only to 22%. Under such a level of animal husbandry development in Perm Krai and the branch wastes quantity is marked a very low rate of one hectare of agricultural areasorganic substance saturation in 2011 year 0.65-1.74, in 2017 year 0.43-1.87.

Having made some calculations we define the necessary quantity of cattle animals in natural-agricultural areas with 2 hectare per one animal and the possible organic fertilizers saturation rate under such conditions( Table 5 ).

Table 5. Optimal cattle stock number calculation in natural-agricultural areas.

Natural-agricultural area

Cattle stock (animals)

Organic fertilizers stock, ton thousand

Organic fertilizers saturation plough

2011

2017

2011

2017

2011

2017

1

1189

705

6834

4051

3.11

3.24

2

28002

24442

161009

140539

3.33

3.13

3

79970

57724

459825

331912

3.33

3.02

4

165361

135800

950826

780847

3.30

3.13

5

22426

17400

128947

100050

3.48

3.36

6

92042

80895

529239

465143

3.14

3.02

The calculations have revealed that in 2017 year in Northern middle taiga area animal cattle quantity must be 6.7 times as many than being in stock now. In Southern Southern-forest area this index must be increasedby 2.2 times, in Komi-Permyak Northern-Western Southern-taiga-forest area and Western Southern Southern-forest by 2.0 times, in Southern-Eastern forest steppe area by 1.9 times and Central-Eastern Southerntaiga forest area by 1.5 times. Under such cattle stock number organic fertilizers plough saturation will constitute 3.02-3.36 hectare thousand, it being 1.6-6.7 times more than under cattle stock in the areas at present.

Scientific establishments have developed the norms of organic fertilizers us-age which will provide non deficit humus balance with obligatory observation of crop rotation, advanced agricultural equipment, zone sharesof mineral fertilizers for different areas, types of soil and other factors. For non-fine soil areas the shares of organic fertilizers on clay-loam soil constitute 10 hectare thousand per year, on sabulous soil 12-15 hectarethousand per year [24].

At present organic substance plough saturation in natural-agricultural areas amount only to 0.5-1.9 hectare thousand which indicates a low level of animal husbandry organic wastes application. The calculations madeto define the optimal cattle stock number don’t provide the minimal level of organic fertilizers saturation either and constitute only 3.1-3.4 with the norm of 10-15 hectare thousand. In this connection additional sourcesof soil filled in with organic substance must be used. Long-term studies on the use of plant residues show that in modern economic conditions, the introduction of perennial grasses in crop rotation and increase their share is an urgent need, since this contributes to an increase in the flow of organic matter into the soil in the form of plant residues, which in turn will allow, against the background of organic and mineral fertilizers, to solve the problem of reproduction of soil humus to its deficit-free balance. Studies conducted at the Perm research Institute of agriculture have shown that in the study of fertilizer application systems in general for crop rotation in the soil comes from 22.03 to 26.08 t/ha of plant residues. As expected, perennial grasses regardless of the system used fertilizer left behind a maximum amount of plant residues 4.87-of 7.08 t/ha, while the potato provided a minimum flow of residue – 1.86-of 2.72 t/ha [25]. Can also the following measures be proposed: the usage of animal husbandry branch wastes from other species of animals and birds; strawploughback: in organic substance content and the influence on humus reproduction one ton of straw equals 3-4 tons of dropping mass; green fertilizer ploughback (legumes lupin, seradella, heading; nonlegurninous rape, runch); for example, perennial lupin accumulates up to 20-30 hectare thousand and more of roots out of which up to 2-4 hectare thousands of fresh humus are formed; rational (minimal) soil treatment, anti-erosionsoil protection and etc. [21, 26].

4. Conclusions

Thus, on the basis of the research found that on the basis of the researches carried out it is concluded that for the purpose of one plough hectare and one agricultural area hectare saturation increase in Perm Krai thenumber of cattle stock need be raised by 2-4 times which will contribute to animal husbandry branch wastes usage going up and this in its turn will make for soil humus content improvement. Thus, the cattle stocknumber increase will allow to raise the one plough hectare saturation with organic fertilizers with the latter providing conditions of low-productive podzolic soil humus formation process and structuring process close tooptimal in Perm Krai. As additional sources of replenishment of organic matter in the soil can be used for alternative organics: waste from the livestock industry from other types of animals and birds, cover crops, post-harvest residues, straw and others.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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